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Sherman Eoff, The Novels of Pérez Galdós, St. Louis, 1954, p. 138, states his belief that Galdós became a Hegelian. But if this is so, the change from Krausismo took place after the writing of El amigo Manso. As Eoff says (p. 134), in this latter novel Galdós' «primary orientation is still the krausismo of Sanz del Río...» As we shall see, it is certainly Krausismo, hence we can compare Manso's ideas with Sanz or with F. Giner de los Ríos, as was done by José Rodríguez Mourelo, (See above, note 2). But as models for Manso's activities, neither Sanz nor Giner will do. Both of them were militant apostles, not, like Manso, withdrawn recluses.



For Galdós' interest in Krausismo, see W. T. Pattison, op. cit., p. 37 ff., and Denah Lida's article in this same number.



El amigo Manso, p. 1175 (Chap. 7).



González Serrano was a friend and admirer of Galdós. See W. T. Pattison, op. cit., pp. 101 and 103-104.



While there can be no question that Galdós took these phrases from the prologue of Tiberghien's work it is possible to find very similar phrases in the works of Hegel, Fichte, and Schelling. This is because Krause came after these philosophers in time and drew heavily on their systems for the formulation of his own.

Thus Juan Valera, in a series of articles called «El racionalismo armónico» published in the Revista de España XXXIII (1873), 433 and 34 (1873), 5 and 289, talks about the antecedents of Krausismo. (Unfortunately, he did not finish the study and never takes us down to the period of Krausismo itself.) Valera, basing himself on Hegel, Fichte, and Schelling, uses phrases like «cierta identidad entre el ser y el conocer» (Vol. XXXIII, 449); «el ser y el conocer son idénticos, se confunden» (Vol. XXXIV, 9); and «el pensante y la pensado se identifican en él [Dios]» (Vol. XXXIV, 301). It is reasonable to assume that Galdós read these articles as he was the director of the Revista de España at the time of their publication, but the exact correspondence between Galdós' words and those of the prologue of Tiberghien's work and the fact that Galdós presents the phrases as quotations makes me feel sure that we have located Galdós' source.



El amigo Manso, p. 1200 (Chap. 17); «Con todos hablé y todos se transfiguraban a mis ojos, que, cual los de Don Quijote, hacía de las ventas castillos». Later Doña Cándida calls Manso «caballero andante y filósofo aventurero», p. 1245 (Chap. 35) and «el caballero quijotero», p. 1273 (Chap. 45).



See Juan López-Morillas, El krausismo español, p. 41.



El amigo Manso, p. 1257 (Chap. 49).



See above, note 73.



For example N. Salmerón, quotation in note 73.