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I find it impossible to accept Jehenson's parenthesis in this statement: «At the crucial moment she is seduced (raped?) not only by Don Fernando but by her own social desire...» (216). (N. from the A.)



«Cada interrupción le sirve a Cervantes para incorporar el relato a los oyentes de una manera vital» (Casalduero 142); they also very much remind us of the fact of an audience, of the context which includes Cardenio's tribulations. (N. from the A.)



Gayton rather enhances the attractiveness of the voice and the suspense imposed by the structure: the fourth reason adduced for the curate's silence at the end of Cardenio's tale is «another extraordinary pleasant voice, drew them all by the ears unto it. It was so ravishing a voice, that it was able to compose the troubled soule of Cardenio; who weary with the sad relation of his own Story, is now at leisure to heare this, which that it may gaine all its grace, the Author places us a roome off from the Musick, and only in this Booke, gives us the echo and falling tunes; but in the next you shall have the fulnesse of the melody, the Beautie of the person, which he sufficiently invites us to, while he raises in us appetite, which will not be satisfied without tasting» (167-68). (N. from the A.)



Casalduero misquotes the key word as «'¡Ay desdicha!'» (140); on the basis of my interpretation the adjective is rendered somewhat inexact in his later reference to «la sorprendente aparición de la mujer» (141). (N. from the A.)



To defend presuming actions to accompany the words, I cite a priestly precedent of Cervantes's own time: «En este verso [of his fourth penitential psalm] Dauid pone por obra lo que en el passado dixo de si mismo. Alli afirmò que conocia su pecado, y le confessaua: y por mostrarlo en la obra, entra aora acusando[s]e delante de Dios, (y quiça dandose en los pechos golpes) [...]» (Vega fol 124v). (N. from the A.)



As such he is portrayed, for example, by the artist Joseph Castillo and the engraver J. Joaquín Fabregat in the 1780 Real Academia Española edition of the Quijote (Ilustraciones n. p.) (N. from the A.).



«Dorotea correrá a ahogar entre las cuerdas de su arpa el interior desasosiego que aquellas pasmarotas de libros [of chivalry] nada devotos sólo podían atizar vanamente» (Márquez Villanueva 1975, 28). (N. from the A.)



There is a decided echo of Juan Luis Vives here, from the opening chapters of the first book, «Instrucción de las vírgenes», of his Libro llamado Instrucción de la mujer cristiana in Juan Justiniano's 1528 translation from the Latin. I cite two examples: «Aprenderá, pues, la mochacha juntamente letras, hilar y labrar, que son ejercicios muy honestos» (I: 3, 22) and «Pero que lea buenos libros compuestos por santos varones, los cuales pusieron tanta diligencia en enseñar a los otros bien vivir como ellos vivieron, esto me paresce no sólo útil, mas aun necesario» (I: 4, 24). How better to impress a religious than to paraphrase these widely available and highly praised instructions? (N. from the A.)



She omits any reference to a signed pledge of marriage, though we later learn from her that there is one, as she recalls to Fernando: «'quieras o no quieras, yo soy to esposa...; testigo será la firma que hiciste...'» (I: 36, 443). Had there been no such «oversight» the theme of victimization might have been weakened. (N. from the A.)



Vives knew the danger well: «ya no se leen otros libros sino vulgares, do no hallaréis otra materia sino de armas y de amores, de los cuales libros soy cierto que no había de hablar de lo que se debría hacer dellos, si hablo con cristianos, y que es menester decir cuán gran peste es añadir alquitrán al fuego ardiendo... Hágote saber que no es muy católico el pensamiento de la mujer que se ceba en pensar en las armas y fuerzas de brazos del varón» (I: 5, 29). Of course Dorotea in her narrative would cite only the texts which could help her cause. (N. from the A.)