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1

Vicente Ramos, Gabriel Miró (Alicante 1979), p. 180.

 

2

Obras completas (Madrid 1961), p. 415-17. Henceforth abbreviated OC.

 

3

'K. enters The Castle. On the Change of Person in Kafka's Manuscript', Euphorion 62 (1968), 28-45.

 

4

I am indebted to Prof. Franz Stanzel for drawing my attention to Kafka and Austen in this respect during a lecture he gave at Aberdeen University and in a personal letter. He also pointed out Joyce Cary's remarks on converting part of Prisoner of Grace from first to third person: 'So the whole content, the meaning of the chapter was altered without the alteration of a single word in it' (Cary is referring to a passage in dialogue). See Cary, Art and Reality (Cambridge 1957), p. 98.

 

5

Details of all the texts and variants compiled by Pedro Caravia in G. Miró, Obras completas, Edición conmemorativa, 12 vols (Barcelona 1932-49), II, p. 247-83.

 

6

Käte Hamburger's concept of the 'epic preterite' is relevant here, a narrative tense that is grammatically past but in fiction introduces the reader into the present world of the characters: The Logic of Literature (Bloomington 1973), p. 64 ff.

 

7

'K. enters The Castle', p. 30.

 

8

Miró's hesitations here can be seen in the fact, not mentioned by Pedro Caravia, that in the 1916 edition '¡Oh, milagro de Nuestra Señora!' is placed in quotation marks.

 

9

I use the term and its abbreviation employed by Roy Pascal in his The Dual Voice (Manchester 1977).

 

10

See for instance, The Dual Voice, p. 137. Seymour Chatman, Story and Discourse (Ithaca 1978), p. 206-8, gives a somewhat different emphasis, distinguishing helpfully between ironical and sympathetic effects of FIS. However the 'covert narrator' remains present in his analysis even when narrator and character are unified.