Selecciona una palabra y presiona la tecla d para obtener su definición.

[855]



ArribaAbajo

Pedagogy: Colleges and Universities

Prepared by Dolly Young



ArribaAbajo

Saber y conocer: un plan para su enseñanza

Carmen M. Lizardi-Rivera

San José State University



Abstract: Un examen comparativo de la presentación de saber y conocer en trece textos de nivel básico, diez de intermedio y tres de avanzado reveló poco contraste entre las explicaciones y ejercicios para los tres niveles, tanto en complejidad lingüística como en desarrollo de destrezas comunicativas. Adoptando el continuo cognitivo propuesto por K. Taylor (1985) para explicar estos verbos, se propone un plan pedagógico básico con variaciones para cada nivel de enseñanza.

Key words: saber, conocer, continuo cognitivo, Taylor (Kathy), pedagogía colaborativa y comunicativa



Un problema conceptual

     Para el angloparlante, la distinción entre saber y conocer es problemática: primero, ambos equivalen a to know; segundo, por razones aspectuales, en el pretérito saber corresponde a to find out y conocer, a to meet for the first time.

     Un examen minucioso (Taylor 1985) de la presentación de estos verbos en diversos diccionarios (bilingües y monolingües), gramáticas y algunos libros de texto revela que estas fuentes complican el problema al no proveer definiciones concisas y comprehensivas a la misma vez. En muchos casos, se define a un verbo con el otro, como si fueran sinónimos.

     Para ampliar el informe de Taylor, considérese por ejemplo la definición del diccionario de la Real Academia Española (1.984): saber es conocer una cosa (1206) y conocer es entender, advertir, saber (361). Otro ejemplo es el Gran diccionario de la lengua española (Sánchez Pérez 1985), donde aparece que saber es conocer o estar informado de algo; conocer una ciencia, un arte, etc. (1686) y conocer es tener suficientes conocimientos de algo como para saberlo y dominarlo a la perfección (434). Finalmente, Moliner (1967) sostiene que en un sentido lógico ambos verbos son intercambiables en todos los casos, lo cual implica que el uso se rige por criterios mecánicos.

     A continuación se presenta la solución propuesta por Taylor, quien enfatiza el fortalecimiento de la distinción semántica entre ambos verbos, localizándolos en un continuo:



(adaptación del original, 651)

 
       Conocer: empírico          Saber: racional      
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
mera familiaridad dominio dominio dominio
discriminación profunda de datos profundo total
(ejecutoria)

En este continuo, saber se define a partir de conocer, ya que este último es un paso preliminar (building block) o una herramienta a nivel empírico para llegar hasta el saber. Conocer abarca desde una simple familiaridad (a) hasta el umbral de saber (b). A su vez, saber se extiende desde © hasta (e), donde el dominio es tan perfecto que se manifiesta en la ejecutoria misma. Es importante aclarar que en el caso de (c), el saber puede adquirirse tanto por medios empíricos (1) como no-empíricos (2). [856]

      1. El sabe que viniste ayer porque te vio llegar.
2. Sé la raíz cuadrada de 64.

Finalmente, conviene señalar que la distinción empírico vs. racional también explica casos como Se conoce que son hermanos (It is evident...) y Se sabe que son hermanos (It is known...).

     Uno de los atractivos principales del continuo de Taylor es que ayuda al alumno a delimitar las fronteras entre los verbos y así manejar hábilmente aquellas situaciones en las que teóricamente ambos son posibles. El uso se rige entonces por el contexto. Para usar un ejemplo de Taylor, en ___ el camino, tanto saber como conocer son opciones gramaticalmente legítimas. No obstante, la selección de una en lugar de la otra señala cierta diferenciación contextual: podría decirse de alguien que ha recorrido el camino alguna vez que simplemente lo conoce (i.e., lo ha experimentado sensorialmente), pero conocer sería insuficiente en el caso de alguien que recorre el camino diariamente; esta última persona lo sabe. Resulta evidente, pues, que el enseñar saber y conocer envuelve mostrar que los verbos no son realmente intercambiables, aun en los casos donde ambos parecen ser la opción correcta.

     Un detalle que Taylor no cubre explícitamente es el uso de los adverbios de intensidad, como en la frase conoce el camino como la palma de su mano, que resulta equivalente a sabe el camino. Por otro lado, en sabe un poco de francés, se implica que el dominio es muy limitado y que por lo tanto el saber es imperfecto. Del paralelo semántico entre saber un poco (un conocer disfrazado) y conocer se desprende que conocer está a un nivel cognitivo más rudimentario que saber. Aun en un caso como conozco perfectamente a mi madre, donde gramaticalmente saber es imposible, el uso del adverbio resulta en la afirmación de un nivel cognitivo superior, completamente paralelo al de saber.



Análisis de libros de texto

     Se revisaron veintiséis libros de texto (Apéndice A) -trece de nivel básico, diez de intermedio y tres de avanzado- con los siguientes tres propósitos: (1) investigar si hay alguna presentación teórica que sea compatible con la propuesta de Taylor, (2) verificar si las explicaciones y los ejercicios en los niveles avanzados son más elaborados (i.e., si hay progresión en dificultad según avanza el nivel), y (3) examinar si hay algún tipo de contextualización cultural (e.g., a través de la presentación de expresiones idiomáticas o refranes populares con saber y conocer).

     Primeramente, sólo tres de los textos ofrecen un enfoque comparable al de Taylor: Bolinger et al. (1960: 101) a nivel básico, Hesse, Orjuela y Terrell (1984: 34) a nivel intermedio y Espinosa y Wonder (1976: 70) a nivel avanzado. Para Bolinger el concepto clave del conocer es awareness, en gradaciones que van desde mere recognition hasta acquaintanceship. El saber enfatiza la idea de control: the knower can put all his knowledge into words, or can act it out. Hesse, Orjuela y Terrell presentan a saber como to know how, to know a fact, to know thoroughly, to know by heart y a conocer como to know or be acquainted with (persons/places) y concluyen lo mismo que Taylor: The choice between saber and conocer depends on the meaning the speaker intends to convey. Para Espinosa y Wonder conocer es to be acquainted with en oposición a to know exactly, que corresponde a saber y que implica un conocimiento completo y detallado.

     En la mayoría de los textos de nivel intermedio (51) y avanzado (52) se encontraron saber y conocer en una lista (junto con verbos como poder, querer y tener) cuyo único propósito es la distinción aspectual entre el imperfecto y el pretérito. En otros casos, los verbos aparecen en una lista de palabras problemáticas (53) con una explicación que difícilmente ilustra cómo distinguir entre los verbos cuando ambos son posibles en un mismo entorno (e.g., ___ un idioma). Un texto avanzado define a saber como to have [857] information or knowledge about something y a conocer como to be acquainted or familiar with something or someone. (54)

     El plan de ejercicios acompañantes difiere muy poco de nivel a nivel, tanto en complejidad lingüística como en progresión de destrezas comunicativas. De hecho, en muchos casos, los ejercicios de los distintos niveles son casi idénticos. (El Apéndice B contiene una recopilación de ejercicios de los diferentes textos, ordenados por destrezas y dificultad). Por último, la variedad de ejercicios es en general escasa.

     En cuanto al asunto de la contextualización cultural de saber y conocer, se nota una ausencia de material relativo al tema, con la única excepción de la expresión idiomática saber de memoria, encontrada en todos los libros de nivel básico.



Propuesta para la enseñanza de saber y conocer

     Parece ser que las explicaciones de los libros de texto para saber y conocer no están tan estandarizadas y pulidas como las de otros puntos clásicos de la pedagogía del español, como por ejemplo, la distinción léxica entre ser y estar y el contraste aspectual entre el pretérito y el imperfecto. El que saber y conocer reciba menos atención de parte de los autores de textos (y posiblemente de los instructores) puede deberse entre otras cosas, a su reducida frecuencia en el habla natural (en comparación con ser y estar, por ejemplo). En segundo lugar, la naturaleza léxica de saber y conocer es intuitivamente menos intimidante que las distinciones aspectuales o de modo. En tercer lugar, la selección errónea de un verbo en lugar del otro, en general no resulta en graves dificultades de comunicación, contrario al caso de ser y estar (e.g., Vicente es/está aburrido).

     Implícito en los textos está el mensaje de que el uso es una simple decisión léxica entre dos polos contrarios. Peor aun, la falta de sofisticación en las explicaciones y ejercicios en los niveles superiores sugiere que no hay conceptos ni destrezas que refinar a esos niveles.

     Como se ve en la propuesta de Taylor, la relación entre saber y conocer no constituye una dicotomía, sino un continuo. De ahí la importancia de dejar de conceptualizar a los verbos como opuestos uno del otro. Es hora de comenzar a considerarlos como puntos en una trayectoria cognitiva que comienza en una discriminación meramente empírica y se extiende hasta el dominio racional, ejecutable a nivel práctico.

     Resultaría conveniente uniformizar la presentación en los libros de texto, de manera que haya un esqueleto común para todos los niveles y que éste a la vez pueda elaborarse en más detalle a medida que aumenta el nivel de estudio. En este sentido, la explicación conceptual de Taylor es atractiva. Su continuo se puede adaptar para uso en todos los niveles y se puede acompañar de ejercicios orales y escritos que envuelvan una progresión de destrezas lingüísticas y comunicativas en un contexto colaborativo. Como recurso adicional, se pueden usar las siguientes dos reglas mecánicas:

      (3) Siempre se usa saber con el infinitivo
(a) o con preguntas indirectas (b). En el primer caso, se trata del dominio de destrezas y en el otro, de datos:
      (a) Sé (* conozco) recitar poemas afroantillanos.
(b) Sé (* conozco) quién es Isabel Allende, pero no sé (* conozco) si vive en Chile.
(4) Siempre se usa conocer cuando el objeto directo es una persona o ser animado. Pueden usarse adverbios como muy bien o perfectamente para expresar más profundidad cognitiva: e.g., Conozco (* sé) a mi familia / a mi mascota.

     A continuación se dan algunas sugerencias de actividades para el salón de clase. Para comenzar, en el primer año, la clase puede hacer una lista de complementos en la pizarra y en el proceso, se puede localizar rápidamente a cada uno en una transparencia que ilustre el continuo de Taylor. Al final, los alumnos se pueden hacer entrevistas [858] formulando preguntas con la lista de complementos de la pizarra y el verbo correspondiente. Es posible asesorar el uso de ambos verbos una vez que los alumnos le informen a la clase sobre los resultados de sus entrevistas.

     Una actividad comunicativa para introducir el pretérito y el imperfecto en un salón de principiantes sería la siguiente: cada alumno hace una lista de noticias, chismes o datos interesantes de los que se haya enterado recientemente. Luego, se comparte la información en parejas o con la clase. Para saber se puede seguir un formato como el siguiente:

      Oigan/Oye, ayer supe que la piña colada se originó en Puerto Rico!

A esto, los compañeros pueden reaccionar enfáticamente con expresiones comunes del hispanohablante, como por ejemplo, Ay, chico/a, eso lo sabía/mos yo/nosotros!, Mentira: no te lo creo o De veras? Ay, Virgen, yo/nosotros no sabía/mos eso. Para conocer, se puede hacer una lista de personas a quienes se haya conocido recientemente y seguir un modelo similar al anterior:

      Oigan/ Oye, ayer conocí a la autora de Eva Luna!

     Ya a nivel intermedio es importante refinar los conceptos, examinando más de cerca las gradaciones en el continuo y aquellos casos dudosos. El siguiente ejercicio, que se puede hacer en parejas, consiste en indicar (1) cómo el contexto justifica el uso de ambos verbos con distintos adverbios y (2) cuál es el concepto en juego (familiaridad vs. dominio). Vale la pena además localizar las expresiones verbales en el continuo para facilitar la comprensión visualmente.

      El estudiante principiante sabe algo de / conoce la asignatura. El estudiante avanzado sabe más de / conoce bien / conoce mejor la asignatura. El profesor la sabe al dedillo / conoce a la perfección.

      Apenas sé el camino, así que no podría dirigirte hasta su casa. No sé muy bien el camino, pero puedo intentar dirigirte. Sé más o menos / conozco relativamente bien el camino; creo que no tendremos problemas en encontrar la casa.

      Mi hermano, que vive en San Juan, se conoce la ciudad como la palma de la mano / se sabe la ciudad pero parece mentira! no conoce bien / se sabe muy mal los nombres de las calles.

      Nosotros conocemos bastante bien / sabemos algunos versos de ese poema pero no como para recitarlo todo de memoria.

     El próximo ejercicio también se hace en parejas. Se indica el concepto que determina la diferencia de matices en significado (empírico vs. racional) y se explica en qué consiste ésta para cada caso:

     Se conoce / sabe que son padre e hijo. (empírico: evidente por el parecido físico; racional: dato transmitido, e.g., el resultado de una prueba de sangre)

     Conozco / Me sé el acento porteño. (empírico: al percibirlo, puedo distinguirlo de otros acentos; racional: lo dominó hasta el punto de poder imitarlo.)

     A nivel intermedio, conviene también utilizar ejercicios que requieran producción oral creativa en un contexto competitivo, como por ejemplo en un juego. Se puede dividir al grupo en dos y que cada equipo prepare preguntas con saber con el propósito de crear un banco de preguntas para interrogar al otro grupo. Se puede asignar un tema específico (e.g., la conservación de los recursos naturales) o hacer un tipo de trivia cultural hispana. Luego, cada equipo usará sus preguntas para examinar al otro.

     En otra actividad cada estudiante formula seis preguntas personales sobre sí mismo/a (tres con cada verbo) para ver cuán bien lo/la conocen sus compañeros de clase. Esto se puede hacer de dos formas, con la clase entera o en parejas: e.g., Sabes/n cuántos años tengo? Conoces/n a mi novio? El objetivo es crear un diálogo auténtico, motivado por un genuino interés personal.

     Ya a nivel avanzado, vale la pena concentrarse de lleno en las expresiones idiomáticas con ambos verbos, en sus connotaciones y en los niveles de formalidad apropiados para su uso. Esto llevará a reforzar el [859] repertorio sociocultural del estudiante. A continuación algunas de estas expresiones: a saber, sábelotodo; qué sé yo!; quién sabe!; sabe /sabrá Dios!; saber más que siete; un no sé qué, un qué sé yo; no saber ni jota de algo; no saber dónde meterse (de vergüenza, miedo o confusión); haberlo sabido!; sin saber(lo); hasta donde yo sé, que yo sepa; saber a ciencia cierta, saber con certeza; saber de buena tinta; saber a qué atenerse; saber lo que le conviene; hacer saber; saber de qué pie cojea alguien; conocer de vista; conocer de nombre; dar a conocer, darse a conocer, saber/conocer al dedillo; saber/conocer como la palma de la mano. Los siguientes dichos populares deben incluirse también: Más sabe el diablo por viejo que por diablo, Nadie sabe el bien que tiene hasta que lo pierde y Es mejor mal conocido, que bien por conocer.

     A continuación dos ejercicios de práctica para las expresiones idiomáticas:

A. Seleccione la información apropiada para cada expresión:
      1. un/a sabelotodo:
    a. alguien arrogante que no acepta la opinión de los demás y se cree una enciclopedia ambulante
b. alguien respetado y admirado por su saber
c. (a) y (b)
2. saber más que siete
a. expresión que describe a alguien arrogante en su limitado saber
b. expresión un poco humorística para alabar a alguien por su habilidad o ingenio
c. (a) y (b)
3. qué sé yo! quién sabe! sabe/sabrá Dios!
a. se usan para contestar preguntas
b. comunican emociones como sorpresa, frustración o enfado de manera enfática
c. indican que no tenemos la más remota idea de algo
d. (a), (b) y (c)
4. un no sé qué / un qué sé yo:
a. una característica (de una persona u objeto) que produce una reacción intuitiva difícil de expresar con palabras
b. un objeto o evento del cual no se tiene suficiente información
c. (a) y (b)
5. no saber ni jota de algo
a. no tener la más mínima idea
b. expresión usada en contextos muy informales
c. (a) y (b)
6. dar a conocer / hacer saber
a. revelar algo, de manera consciente y activa, con palabras
b. revelar algo, de manera inconsciente y pasiva, sin palabras
c. (a) y (b)
7. a saber
a. expresión que precede una enumeración de ejemplos o una explicación
b. expresión usada principalmente en prosa formal
c. (a) y (b)
8. conocer de vista (a alguien)
a. puedo identificar físicamente a la persona
b. es posible que salude o hable brevemente con esta persona de vez en cuando
c. es posible que sepa dónde vive o dónde trabaja la persona
d. sé cómo se llama la persona
e. (a), (b) y (c)
9. conocer de nombre (a alguien)
a. sé cómo se llama la persona
b. puedo identificarla físicamente
c. (a) y (b)
10. haberlo sabido!
a. se dice cuando descubrimos algo que no sabíamos y que consideramos necesario haber sabido antes
b. lamentación de alguien que se arrepiente de haber tomado una decisión sin tener toda la información necesaria
c. sirve como reproche a una persona que no nos dio cierta información a tiempo
d. (a), (b), (c)
11. (hacer algo) sin saber(lo)
a. sin comprender racionalmente las consecuencias del acto realizado
b. accidentalmente, por error
c. (a) y (b)

Clave: 1. a; 2. c; 3. d; 4. a; 5. c; 6. c; 7. c; 8. e; [860] 9. a; 10. d; 11. c.

B. Escoja la definición apropiada para cada frase:

 
      1. no saber dónde meterse                           a. enterarse por una fuente de información muy confiable
2. saber de qué pie cojea alguien b. basándome en toda la información que tengo disponible; sinónimo de hasta donde yo sé
3. saberlo que (le) conviene c. ser consciente de los puntos débiles de una persona
4. saber de buena tinta d. no estar seguro de cómo actuar en una situación vergonzosa o difícil
5. saber a qué atenerse e. estar seguro de lo que es mejor para uno mismo o para otros
6. que yo sepa f. ser consciente de los peligros y las posibles consecuencias de algo

Clave: 1. d; 2. c; 3. e; 4. a; 5.f; 6. b.



C. Llene el blanco con la frase idiomática apropiada. Puede haber más de una respuesta correcta.
 
      1. Ese poema tiene___ que me encanta. (un no sé qué, un qué sé yo)
2. Estoy preocupada: voy al Japón en dos semanas y no ___ japonés. (sé ni jota de)
3. Todos los días, mis vecinos discuten a gritos y así les ___ a los demás sus problemas maritales. (dan a conocer, hacen saber)
4. Mi sobrinita de tres años habla sin parar y siempre lo pregunta todo. Todos dicen que ___ .(sabe más que siete)
5. El rey Edipo mató a su padre y se casó con su madre ___ .(sin saberlo)
6. Hay dos tipos de ejercicio físico, ___ el aeróbico y el anaeróbico. (a saber)
7. Por lo general, los padres piensan que ___ a los hijos. (saben lo que les conviene)
8. Después de vivir con un compañero de cuarto por un año, uno ___ esa persona. (sabe de qué pie cojea)


     Finalmente, las siguientes actividades colaborativas pueden usarse para repasar tanto los refranes como las expresiones idiomáticas. En la primera, se divide la clase en grupos de tres o cuatro personas y cada grupo trata de usar el mayor número de expresiones idiomáticas para escribir la biografía (ficticia o real) de un/a sábelotodo. Esta actividad se puede hacer también en una modalidad dramática, a manera de situación narrada y representada.

     En la próxima actividad, se divide la clase en tres grupos y a cada uno se le asigna un refrán con saber o conocer. Cada grupo debe escribir una historieta que tenga como moraleja el refrán asignado. Como la actividad anterior, también se puede hacer en una modalidad dramática.

     Lo anterior representa una progresión de conceptos y ejercicios, comenzando en el nivel elemental con el esqueleto básico del continuo de Taylor y algo de énfasis en el pretérito/imperfecto, continuando en el nivel intermedio con ejercicios analíticos basados en las distinciones empírico vs. racional y familiaridad vs. dominio que aparecen en el continuo y con cierto énfasis en la producción oral creativa en contextos competitivos, y finalmente culminando en el nivel avanzado con ejercicios de contextualización cultural mediante el uso de expresiones idiomáticas y refranes populares con saber y conocer.



Conclusión y recomendaciones

     La presentación de saber y conocer en los libros de texto debe explotar la relación de continuidad cognitiva que existe entre ambos verbos, evitando así fomentar la idea de [861] que se trata de una simple dicotomía léxica.

     Al uniformizar la presentación de esta manera, le resultará más fácil al alumno el proceso de refinar la comprensión a medida que aumenta su nivel de estudio. Usando la explicación conceptual de Taylor, primero de manera descriptiva (nivel elemental) y luego de manera analítica (nivel intermedio), se puede elaborar un plan cuya mayor ventaja es la continuidad pedagógica. Finalmente, el uso de materiales conducentes a la contextualización cultural es recomendable, como así también el explotar al máximo el uso de expresiones idiomáticas y refranes populares con estos verbos.



Apéndice A



Libros de texto:

Primer año

     Bolinger, Dwight et al., eds. Modern Spanish-A Project of the MLA. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1960.

     Castells, Matilde and Harold Lionetti. La lengua española: gramática y cultura. New York: Scribner's Sons, 1974.

     Crow, John A. Se habla español. New York: Harper and Row, 1979.

     Dalbor, John B. Beginning College Spanish: from Sounds to Structures. New York: Random House, 1972.

     da Silva, Zenia Sacks. Beginning Spanish: A Concept Approach, 3rd ed. New York: Harper and Row, 1973.

     Knorre, Marty et al. Puntos de partida: an Invitation to Spanish, 3rd ed. New York: Random House, 1989.

     Levy-Konesky, Nancy and Karen Daggett. Así es. Fort Worth: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich College, 1992.

     Nicholas, Robert, María Canteli Dominicis, and Eduardo Neale-Silva. Motivos de conversación: Essentials of Spanish, 2nd ed. New York: Random House, 1988.

     Segreda, Guillermo and James Harris. Spanish: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1976.

     Terrell, Tracy et al. Dos mundos: A Communicative Approach. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.

     Valencia, Pablo and Maureen Weissenrieder. En contacto: A First Course in Spanish. 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.

     Valette, Jean-Paul, Gene Kupferschmid, and Rebecca Valette. Con mucho gusto: lengua y cultura del mundo hispánico. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1980.

     VanPatten, Bill et al. Sabías que...? Beginning Spanish. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992.



Tercer semestre

     Canteli Dominicis, María and Joseph Cussen. Casos y cosas. 2nd ed. New York: Random House, 1985.

     Dalbor John B. and H. Tracy Sturcken. Spanish in Review. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1979.

     González Trinidad and Joseph Farrell. Composición práctica. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1994.

     Klein, Carol and Jorge Guitart. Personajes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.

     Haro, María-Paz, María del Carmen Sigler and Christine Bennett. Cada vez mejor. New York: MacMillan, 1990.

     Hesse, Everett, Héctor Orjuela and Tracy Terrell. Spanish Review, 6th ed. Boston: Heinle and Heinle, 1984.

     Holton, James, Roger Hadlich, and Norhma Gómez-Estrada. A Spanish Review Grammar: Theory and Practice. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1977.

     Kupferschmid, Gene and Thalia Dorwick. Un paso más. McGraw-Hill, 1990.

     Levy-Konesky, Karen Daggett and Lois Cecsarini. Fronteras: gramática y composición. 2nd ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992.

     McVey Gill, Mary, Brenda Wegmann and Teresa Méndez-Faith. En contacto: gramática en acción. 4th ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992.



Cuarto semestre

     Ascarrunz, Graciela and Marian Zwerling. Horizontes gramaticales. New York: Harper and Row, 1984.

     Ayllón, Cándido, Paul Smith and Antonio Morillo. Spanish Composition through [862] Literature. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1992.

     Espinosa, Aurelio and John Wonder. Gramática analítica. Lexington, MA: DC Heath and Co., 1976.



Apéndice B

Recopilación de ejercicios encontrados en los textos para la pedagogía de saber y conocer



Nivel básico (primer año)

I. Discriminación pasiva:

A. El estudiante escoge el infinitivo del verbo apropiado: Saber o conocer? (Knorre et al., 193-94)

     e.g. I know the address.

o la forma conjugada apropiada: o conozco? (Castells y Lionetti, 193)

     e.g. ___ al señor Pérez.

o todas las respuestas posibles (Levy-Konesky y Daggett, 171)

  e.g. Sé...
  a. su nombre.
b. al presidente personalmente.
c. que Alma sale con Jorge.
d. conducir bien.

B. Sustitución en estructuras fijas: siguiendo un modelo, el estudiante produce complementos apropiados para sustituir los constituyentes subrayados.

      e.g. Conocemos bien a Julita. (Knorre et al., 193-94)
Para ser secretaria, es bueno saber usar una computadora. (VanPatten et al., 463)
Quiero conocer a Gloria Estefan porque sabe cantar en español y en inglés. (Levy-Konesky y Daggett, 171)


II. Producción activa (conjugación):

A. Sustitución de sujetos en oraciones sencillas (55) (Dalbor 1972: 476; Crow, 96; Valette, Kupferschmid y Valette, 133)

      e.g. No conocen a Pablo. (ella, nosotros, uds.)
o en párrafos (Robert, 133)
e.g. La madre oye que la niña está llorando y sabe inmediatamente que está enferma. Como conoce al Dr. Jiménez, pone a Ana en el coche y sale con ella para la casa del doctor.
     (yo, tú, los padres, vosotros, nosotras)

B. Preguntas personales (56): (Dalbor 1972: 476; da Silva, 77; Robert, 87)

  e.g, Sabes tocar el piano?
Conoces la ciudad de Los Angeles?

C. Conjugar el verbo apropiado y llenar los blancos (en oraciones sencillas, párrafos o diálogos). (Segreda y Harris, 149; Castells y Lionetti, 193; Terrell et al., 184-85)

D. Traducción parcial (Crow, 96; Valencia y Weissenrieder, 118)

      e.g. We know dónde está el hotel.
I know Carlos Fuentes.
o de frases completas (Bolinger et al., 101; Valette, Kupferschrnid y Valette, 267; Valencia y Weissenrieder, 118)
e.g. We know the National Theater. But we don't know where it is.


Nivel intermedio (tercer semestre)

I. Repaso: Ver los ejercicios del nivel básico, ya que son comparables (e.g. uso discriminatorio de verbos conjugados y traducción -parcial y total- de frases).

II. Saber y conocer en el pretérito y el imperfecto:

A. Escoger la forma apropiada del verbo (McVey, Wegmann y Méndez-Faith, 48)

      e.g, Un día (conocí/ conocía) a José, un hombre alegre y muy bueno.
o la(s) respuesta(s) correcta(s):
e.g. Supimos...
a. cómo ocurrió el accidente.
b. nadar cuando éramos pequeños.
c. la ciudad.
d. que mamá estaba enferma.

B. Hacer los cambios necesarios en la oración en español para que resulte equivalente a la frase en inglés (Holton et al., 105-106):

      e.g. He never found out that the money was under his bed.
No sabe que el dinero está debajo de la cama.

C. Traducción (Dalbor y Sturcken, 61; Levy-Konesky, Daggett y Cecsarini, 94; McVey, Wegmann y Méndez-Faith, 47)

     e.g. Did you hear that they lost the election? I knew they were going to lose. [863]



Nivel avanzado (cuarto semestre)

I. Repaso: Ver los ejercicios del nivel básico, ya que son comparables.

II. Pretérito vs. imperfecto (57):

      Redacción: inventar una historia que incluya y explique el sentido del pretérito y del imperfecto del verbo indicado. (Ascarrunz y Zwerling, 28)
e.g. Sabíamos que ibas a casarte.
Supimos que ibas a casarte.

III. Casos difíciles de saber y conocer (Espinosa y Wonder, 71)

A. Explique la diferencia entre las dos oraciones:

     e.g. Conocen el secreto. Saben el secreto.

B. Traducción:

     e.g. I wonder whether he knew my intentions in the matter.



OBRAS CITADAS

     Moliner, María. Diccionario de uso del español. Madrid: Gredos, 1967.

     Ramsey, Marathon. A Textbook of Modern Spanish. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1956.

     Real Academia Española. Diccionario de la lengua española, 20ma ed. Tomos 1 y 2. Madrid, 1984. 2 tomos.

     Sánchez Pérez, Aquilino. Gran diccionario de la lengua española. Madrid: Sociedad General Española de Librería, S.A., 1985.

     Taylor, Kathy. Saber and conocer. Hispania 68,3 (1985): 649-55.

[864]





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Pedagogy: Elementary And Middle Schools, FLES*(K-8)

Prepared by Gladys C. Lipton

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Stimulating Oral Production

Jacob J. Easley

Sherwood Elementary School, Albany, GA



Abstract: Daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response promote oral production and the learning of vocabulary in FLES* classes

Key Words: oral production, FLES*, complete sentence response, calendar activities, elementary schools



     Since oral production develops slower than receptive abilities, it is some times frustrating for FLES* teachers when students slip back into English, especially in a class where the teacher restricts speaking in English without permission. It is equally frustrating for young learners struggling to speak in Spanish without a strong enough command of the language to express themselves. There is a simple way to ease the frustration of both the teacher and student. The procedure can prove challenging during its inception, but it is axiomatic that, regardless of the level, the more that is expected of students, the more they will give.

     To begin with, teachers should require complete sentence responses from students. This requirement makes them use more vocabulary and allows them to become familiar with varied syntactic patterns. It helps them to process Spanish to create their own unrehearsed statements. For example, one day I met a first-grader who was shopping with his mother. He indicated that he had recently lost a tooth by pointing to a new space in his mouth. He never said a word of English, I then asked him an unfamiliar question, Cuándo perdiste el diente? His response was, Ayer fue. He had processed this statement as a direct result of our regular calendar activities.

     A daily calendar study is an excellent way to begin requesting complete sentence responses. Assuming that the students are already accustomed to calendar related questions, the recycling of these questions makes an appropriate way to evoke complete thought responses. Moreover, the questions and examples will appear natural in relation to the calendar. This is another important point: though some liberties may be taken on occasion, complete sentences should be required in activities in which they seem natural. Students can make such complete statements as:

      El mes es junio. Hoy es martes. Ayer fue lunes. Mañana será miércoles. Hace frío. Es un día soleado. La estación es la primavera. Hoy es el cumpleaños de Pablo. La fecha es el doce de mayo de 1995.

Students may easily construct all of the above statements by manipulating the teacher's questions.

     Games also make an effective vehicle for reinforcing the usage of complete sentences. One such activity is the Qué te duele? questioning game, with varied answers: [865] Me duele la pierna (el pie, el brazo, etc.). A memory game is also fun. For example, illustrated animal cards are placed face down. As the youngsters turn over the cards, they identify the pictured animal by stating, Este es un elefante, or Esta es una girafa, etc. After showing both cards, the teacher presents the question, Son iguales, o son diferentes? The students then answer in unison by choosing one of the two phrases in the teacher's original question.

     Further reinforcement of complete sentence responses can be achieved though the use of what I call productive language2 [squared], in which the squared exponent signifies the duality of language in production. For this purpose, language is verbally produced by students and, as a result, evokes a response from others. For example, students can learn useful daily expressions such as Necesito ir al baño. Necesito agua. Pablo habla inglés. Students find it exciting that their words can now be used to create a desired response from others. Building for transfer allows teachers to expand the expressions students learn as their language skills develop. One can teach older students more sophisticated requests like Con permiso, puedo ir al baño, por favor?, as opposed to the rudimentary statement Necesito ir al baño.

     A word of caution is in order, since not all students will progress in the use of complete statements with equal success. Delayed students should never be forced to speak until they are ready. However, the opportunity to speak must always remain available to them, even if it is within a chorus. Eventually they too may make the transition to productive use of full sentences.

     Used more frequently than reading and writing, verbal communication is the primary communicative form in the FLES* classroom. Thus, it is important to stimulate students to speak in Spanish as soon as possible. Though they may not be capable of enunciating complex sentences in the beginning, even the simplest sentence in good, correct standard Spanish puts them on the course toward a productive FLES* experience.

[866]





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Pedagogy: Secondary Schools

Prepared by Nancy Wheaton Modern



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Español en el bosque

María R. Fuentes

Orono High School



Abstract: Español en el bosque es un programa de inmersión total en español cuya meta es ayudar a los estudiantes a mejorar el español hablado y profundizar sus conocimientos culturales en un ambiente natural e informal. Los estudiantes y sus maestros conviven durante todo un fin de semana de cuarenta y cinco horas, hablando únicamente en español.

Key Words: inmersión, pedagogía secundaria, actividades, convivencia, programas suplementarios, talleres, juegos



     La verdadera práctica del idioma es a veces difícil de establecer en la clase cotidiana. El ejercicio del idioma hablado es más natural cuando reúne la vida social con la académica. Un programa como el que se describe a continuación, llamado Español en el bosque ayuda a los estudiantes a hablar acerca de lo que les rodea y a extender sus conocimientos en español a la naturaleza. Los estudiantes aprenden vocabulario nuevo, y en situaciones naturales se ven obligados a utilizar distintos tiempos verbales. Invita la participación de todos los estudiantes, desde los más tímidos a los más extrovertidos.

     Español en el bosque es un programa de inmersión total en español que se lleva a cabo, desde hace cuatro años, en el campamento 4-H de Tanglewood en Lincolnville, Maine, para estudiantes de nivel superior y medio. Los participantes incluyen estudiantes de escuela secundaria, maestros de escuela secundaria y universidad, así como adultos interesados en practicar o mejorar su uso del español. Los maestros son, por lo general, hablantes nativos del español y ayudantes voluntarios de escuelas y universidades que se reúnen con el fin de hablar y escuchar el idioma y utilizarlo en diversas actividades como cocinar, bailar, cantar, leer y jugar. Los programas se llevaban originalmente a cabo durante un fin de semana dos veces por año, en la primavera y en el otoño, pero por motivos económicos se cambió a un fin de semana, siempre con la esperanza de que la situación económica mejore y se pueda ofrecer con más frecuencia. El número de estudiantes que participan fluctúa entre veinticinco a treinta y cinco participantes. Por lo general cada estudiante participa durante un solo fin de semana, pero hay participantes que han repetido la experiencia dos y tres veces.

     La idea para este programa nació del deseo de proporcionar a los estudiantes una experiencia natural al usar el español, parecida a la inmersión que proporcionaría un viaje al extranjero pero sin los gastos. Se buscaba un lugar donde para sobrevivir tuvieran que hablar español. El campamento 4-H en Tanglewood ofrece un contexto perfecto para tal propósito. Los estudiantes llegan y vuelven a sus casas en coches particulares, aunque ha habido casos en que llegan en minibuses cuando la distancia del punto de partida es muy larga.

     El programa atrae a distintos tipos de participantes, y éste es uno de sus atractivos: el permitir que estudiantes de distintos niveles y experiencias compartan la vida cotidiana, aunque sea sólo por un fin de semana, como si fuese un viaje a Méjico, Costa Rica o España. Para los maestros y estudiantes en un ambiente académico tradicional, es fácil olvidar que el idioma es un instrumento que sirve a sus hablantes en la vida diaria, para cantar, comer y jugar (además de conjugar). Estos fines de semana en [867] un campamento, sin la presión ni la distracción de las inevitables evaluaciones, timbres y disciplina del salón de clase, ayudan a los estudiantes de diversos niveles y destrezas. A los estudiantes que necesitan ayuda, les da la oportunidad de mejorar sus destrezas; a los estudiantes que piensan pasar un año o semestre en el extranjero les sirve de ensayo para esa experiencia futura. Los estudiantes con una buena preparación, por su parte, pueden poner en práctica lo que han aprendido en las aulas en un ambiente más informal. Ofrece una oportunidad poco frecuente para un intercambio de conocimientos y puntos de vista entre maestros y estudiantes en un ambiente natural.

     Impulsó en parte el proyecto el reconocimiento de que existe entre el sector comercial en el estado de Maine, por parte de las empresas, un interés creciente en que sus empleados aprendan otros idiomas, y en especial el español. Además, los maestros y profesionales en el campo de la medicina, así como los agricultores que trabajan con los inmigrantes hispano-hablantes están deseosos de aprender español. Como parte del proyecto se consiguió que los maestros que participaran en sus actividades tuvieran la opción a recibir puntos hacia su certificación estatal.

     Dirigen las actividades del programa dos maestros con la ayuda de varios voluntarios que también dominan el idioma y de una persona encargada de preparar el alojamiento en las cabañas, comprar la comida y preparar el menú. Este consiste en arroz con pollo, tortilla de patatas, ensalada a la aragonesa, gallopinto, arroz con leche, churros y una abundancia de frutas y verduras. El alojamiento en cabañas rústicas mantiene el coste a un precio módico, y para los que no pueden costear el fin de semana se han podido conseguir becas. Las técnicas de enseñanza son muy sencillas: se organizan talleres con grupos pequeños para tratar temas de interés usando materiales auténticos. Los alumnos preparan parodias que se presentan los domingos y aprenden canciones y juegos. Siempre hay oportunidades para intercambiar ideas e introducir actividades y materiales de acuerdo a los intereses de los participantes.

     Muchas de las actividades están inspiradas en las sesiones de verano que organiza el club de 4-H en el bosque de Tanglewood. De rompehielos se emplean con frecuencia juegos destinados a que los participantes se conozcan unos a otros. Por ejemplo, en una de estas actividades los jóvenes se ponen en fila, los más bajos al principio y los más altos al final, y con los ojos cerrados deben presentarse, decir de dónde son y qué hacen. En otra los estudiantes forman una fila en orden alfabético de sus nombres o se agrupan por sus estados o países de nacimiento, por cumpleaños o por gustos. La idea de formar estos grupos es darles la oportunidad para conocerse mejor, ya que uno de los atractivos de estos fines de semana es crear un ambiente de gran familia.

     Otro rompehielo eficaz que se practica en el programa es el globingo, una adaptación del juego del bingo: se divide una hoja de papel en cuadros y en cada cuadro se escriben distintas afirmaciones como las siguientes:

      1. Ha visitado un país de habla hispana
2. Comió comida española esta semana
3. Piensa tener una concentración en español
4. Puede nombrar a una persona de un país de habla española
5. Sabe hablar tres idiomas
6. Lleva correspondencia con alguien de un país hispano
7. Sabe una canción en español
8. Tiene un pariente que nació en un país hispano
9. Lleva algo fabricado en un país hispano

Debajo de cada categoría se deja un espacio en blanco para la firma y otro espacio para explicar con la información requerida, para especificar qué país, comida, universidad, persona, idiomas, etc. La primera persona que haya rellenado todos sus cuadros dirá: globingo y se le dará tiempo para que lea en voz alta toda la información que haya acumulado en su tarjeta. [868]

     Por lo que a talleres se refiere, se ofrecen, sobre todo para los participantes que enseñan español, clases de gramática sobre puntos delicados, como son el subjuntivo, ser y estar, por y para, el pretérito y el imperfecto, y expresiones idiomáticas. Otros talleres están planeados para todo el grupo y suelen consistir en presentaciones sobre un país o un aspecto específico de un país de habla hispana o un tema literario o cultural. El papel de los voluntarios es muy importante en este tipo de taller porque a menudo ofrecen charlas muy distintas de las que presentaría el profesor, ya que se trata de personas de experiencias muy diversas. En el pasado las charlas han versado sobre países latinoamericanos individuales (Perú y Costa Rica), la Guerra Civil española, los refranes de Don Quijote y las fiestas típicas de Cataluña.

     Otro aspecto importante del fin de semana de Español en el bosque es el contacto con la naturaleza, y con este objeto se organizan muchas actividades al aire libre, aprovechando los entornos del campamento en Tanglewood. Una de estas actividades es Tu propio árbol, que sirve para desarrollar el sentido del tacto. Después de vendarle los ojos a los participantes con pañuelos, hay que buscar un lugar donde haya bastantes árboles y donde se esté seguro. Una vez de que se le tapen los ojos a un participante, un guía le lleva de la mano a un árbol, que será su árbol. Para llegar a dicho árbol se le da un rodeo a la persona que lleva los ojos vendados para que le sea más difícil saber donde está su árbol una vez de que se le quite la venda. Cuando el individuo está en su árbol se le hacen varias preguntas, como si tiene agujeros o grietas, qué altura tiene la primera rama, si la superficie alrededor del árbol es rocosa o lisa, si tiene hierba o es una combinación de hierba, rocas y tierra, si tiene líquenes en la corteza del árbol, si tiene olores particulares o hay señales de algún animal. Después de pasar un rato tocando y sintiendo el árbol, se le da otra vuelta en zigzag, se le quita la venda y se le pide que encuentre su árbol y que comente sus características. Si la persona tiene dificultad en encontrar su árbol, se le hacen algunas de las preguntas que se le hicieron al principio. Una variante de esta actividad consiste en describir un árbol a una persona y que ésta lo encuentre.

     Otra actividad que se lleva a cabo al aire libre se llama el Camuflaje en el sendero. Antes de empezar esta actividad es conveniente recordar y repasar la importancia del camuflaje de ciertos animales. La actividad exige ciertos materiales: papel y lápiz, además de unos diez o quince objetos, que pueden ser ropa, utensilios de cocina, envolturas de caramelos, lápices, etc., que se colocarán en el suelo, en grietas de los árboles o se colgarán de las ramas. Los objetos deben esconderse a ambos lados del sendero y no deben estar ni tan escondidos que sea imposible encontrarlos ni tan obvios que sea demasiado fácil. El objetivo es que los participantes hagan el papel de detectives de la naturaleza, asegurándose de mirar en lo alto de los árboles, así como en el suelo. Debe haber un límite de tiempo para encontrar los objetos (de diez a quince minutos), y durante ese tiempo se va apuntando donde se encuentran los artículos y quién es el primero en encontrarlos. Después del paseo se pregunta qué objetos fueron más difíciles de encontrar y qué animales usan el camuflaje en su ecosistema.

     Naturalmente el programa Español en el bosque es ideal cuando los fines de semana vienen acompañados de buen tiempo, pero cuando hace mal tiempo conviene organizar otro tipo de actividades. Se puede recurrir a los juegos educativos, como Intelecto (Scrabble), el monopolio, la lotería y los naipes. Un juego que tiene buena acogida es el llamado Qué animal soy?, que se puede usar también entre las lecciones de los talleres. Para este juego se necesitan unas tarjetas con figuras de animales recortadas de revistas y trozos de cuerda que se pasan por las tarjetas agujereadas. A cada participante se le pone o cuelga en la espalda una tarjeta, sin que esa persona vea el animal que le ha tocado. El objetivo del juego es que cada uno adivine cuál es su animal, haciendo preguntas que sólo requieran respuestas afirmativas o negativas [869] (e.g., Soy mamífero? Vivo en África?) a los demás participantes.

     Otras actividades que se prestan a pasar el rato son las siguientes:

     1. Veinte preguntas con sery estar. El juego consiste en averiguar quién es la persona famosa que uno de los participantes ha elegido para el juego. Las preguntas sólo podrán responderse con sí o no. Por ejemplo: Es viejo/joven?, Está vivo/muerto?, Es hombre/mujer?, Es político/atleta/artista?, Es americana/europea?, etc.

     2. La búsqueda del basurero. Se les da a los participantes una lista de objetos que han sido escondidos previamente y que ellos tienen que encontrar en un tiempo determinado. La lista puede incluir objetos como una hoja de roble, una hoja de arce, una ramita, un puñado de tierra, una pluma de pájaro, musgo, una flor silvestre, paja, una corteza de árbol, algo rojo, algo negro, un pañuelo azul, una pulsera, unas gafas de sol, etc. El primero que lo encuentre todo gana.

     3. Gana, pierde o dibuja. Se puede jugar con dos equipos o individualmente. El objetivo del juego es adivinar la palabra que ha dibujado un jugador del equipo opuesto. Se echa a suerte quién será la persona que empiece el juego. El encargado o monitor del juego tendrá tarjetas preparadas con palabras de distintos tipos: sustantivos, adjetivos, verbos, adverbios, que los jugadores no podrán ver hasta el momento en que les toque su turno. Se puede tener en cuenta el nivel de los estudiantes para escoger el nivel de dificultad de las palabras, pues por lo general es más difícil dibujar y adivinar verbos y adverbios que sustantivos y adjetivos. La persona que empieza el juego dibuja la palabra que está escrita en la tarjeta que le enseña el monitor y un jugador del segundo equipo tiene que adivinar la palabra; si la primera persona del segundo equipo no la adivina, le toca adivinar la palabra a un jugador del primer equipo, y si éste tampoco lo hace, le vuelve a tocar al segundo equipo, hasta que uno de los equipos la adivine. Si ninguno de los miembros de los dos equipos adivina la palabra, el monitor enseña otra tarjeta a un miembro del segundo equipo. Este dibuja la palabra y se continúa el juego. El equipo que adivina la primera palabra gana el punto y la oportunidad de hacer un dibujo para la segunda palabra.

     4. Juego de letras. Se necesita una pelota blanda, de tenis o de goma. Una persona empieza el juego tirando la pelota a otra mientras dice De la Habana viene un barco cargado de... g (por ejemplo). La persona que recibe la pelota debe de nombrar una palabra que empiece con g. Si no acierta a encontrar una palabra o nombra una palabra que empieza con otra letra, debe someterse a un castigo si quiere rescatar la prenda que se ha depositado al comienzo del juego. Los castigos consisten en tener que cantar, bailar, contar un cuento o dar una voltereta, entre otros.

     Para casi todos los participantes el momento cumbre del fin de semana es la presentación de las parodias en las que han estado trabajando desde el primer día del programa. Las parodias se presentan al aire libre el domingo, por lo general, después del almuerzo. Es una actividad que fomenta el trabajar en grupo. Se procura agrupar a participantes de distintas aptitudes y talentos. Los miembros de cada grupo se reparten los papeles según sus talentos. En este tipo de actividades en grupo siempre se descubre algún comediante, cantante o artista que mantenía su talento escondido. Para los maestros esta parte del fin de semana es la que les trae más satisfacciones, porque es donde ven el fruto de todo el trabajo realizado en los dos días de convivencia en español.

     La posibilidad de mejorar el español halado es evidente en todas las actividades mencionadas. Español en el bosque ofrece un ambiente natural y agradable donde todos sus participantes pueden disfrutar el intercambio de ideas, pensamientos y acciones en español. La combinación de estudiantes de distintos niveles, maestros y voluntarios que hablan bien el idioma y una gran diversidad de actividades contribuyen a que el programa sea una experiencia única de práctica y de aprendizaje. [870]



     Horario típico de Español en el bosque

      Siesta      
  2:00 p.m.   Actividades para el medio ambiente
VIERNES 3:30 p.m. Maestros/as: Preguntas
5:00 p.m. Matrícula para los instructores
5:30 p.m. Orientación Estudiantes: juegos libres
4:30 p.m. Actividades en grupo
5:45 p.m. Rompehielo 5:00 p.m. Preparación para la cena
6:30-7:00 p.m. Cena 6:00 p.m. Cena
7:30 p.m. Tarea para las parodias y 7:00 p.m. Preparación para la hoguera en el bosque
para las hogueras en el
bosque 8:00 p.m. Caminata nocturna/diario
Charadas Hoguera en el bosque
Descripciones-Colores
Preparación para las parodias en grupo DOMINGO
8:00 a.m. Desayuno
9:00 p.m. Hora libre Limpieza y empaque
10:00 a.m. La búsqueda del basurero
SÁBADO 11:00 a.m. Juegos (y tal vez vídeos)
8:00 a.m. Desayuno 12:00 p.m. Almuerzo
9:00 a.m. Actividades variadas 12:30 p.m. Presentación de las parodias
11:00 a.m. Preparación para las parodias 1:30 p.m. Evaluación del programa
(en grupos) Clausura
12:00 p.m. Almuerzo 2:00 p.m. Regreso a casa

[871]





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IDEA: Acertaste el precio!

Karen Hardy Cárdenas

South Dakota State University



Abstract: Using a popular television game in class provides practice in listening comprehension and speaking as well as an opportunity to review numbers and the names of objects.

Key words: vocabulary, numbers, review, activities, games



     Acertaste el precio! is a game which can be used to review both vocabulary and numbers. It uses a format many students will recognize. This activity is modeled on a game which frequently appears on The Price Is Right and can be adapted in several ways to fit the needs and skill levels of a regular class. It is especially good for such difficult times as Fridays before vacations or when an assembly takes up part of the class and students are little disposed to doing the regular classwork.

     The basic format is that the instructor brings pictures of four or five items to class and holds up each picture in turn, describing the object depicted to the class. The instructor then writes several numbers, representing prices, on the blackboard and asks the students to match the objects which have been described with the prices given. When the students assign a price to a particular article, the instructor places the picture of the article in the chalk tray under the price. After the class has had an opportunity to guess which object goes with each price, the instructor tells the students how many (but not which) prices are correct. The students then have an opportunity to change their guesses. The game continues until the class has assigned the correct price to each object.

     The pictures may come from the instructor's own picture file or may be cut from catalogues. Department store flyers from newspapers, particularly the Sunday edition, are also good sources of colorful pictures. The instructor might ask students to bring their own pictures and then give them some time to mount them on poster board or construction paper. For students who are just beginning to study Spanish the objects used can be grouped around the theme they are learning: objects in the classroom, clothing, household items, etc. The objects have to be carefully selected so that students can guess their prices using the numbers they already have learned. The game can be repeated several times a semester or year as new units of vocabulary are introduced and students master larger sets of numbers.

     In introductory-level classes, a benefit of the activity is that it involves students in active listening. One may start off requiring students to provide simple responses of one or two words to questions, for example: Aquí tenemos una blusa, una corbata, un traje muy elegante, calcetines y un saco. A [872] ver, clase, Cuál de estas cosas tiene un precio de $100? La blusa cuesta $100? La corbata cuesta $100? El traje cuesta $100? Los calcetines cuestan $100? El saco cuesta $100? Qué creen ustedes? Cuál de estos objetos cuesta $100?

     In more advanced classes, instructors can surrender their role to the students, who, working individually or in teams, choose the objects they wish to describe, prepare the descriptions and perform the role of game show host. At this level, particularly if the class likes to work in teams, one student from a team will be the host and one student from the opposing team will be the player or participant. The remainder of the class assumes the role of audience and can try to help or confuse the player. At this level also students may be encouraged to ask questions about the objects being described: De qué es la blusa? Es de seda o es de algodón? Dónde se vende esta blusa? Se vende en Sears o en Saks Fifth Avenue? Students at this advanced level may also be encouraged -or discouraged- from bringing pictures of objects with deceiving prices; a $15,000 fountain pen could cause either confusion or laughter, depending on the class.

     If students have the skills necessary to take the roles of game show host and/or participant but are so timid that they are uncomfortable getting up in front of the class, this activity works well also in small groups of four or five. Students take turns being the game show host, the participant, and the audience. Instead of using the board, students could use small post-it notes, which can be affixed, removed and used again many times, with prices on them to record the participant's guesses. Changing the groupings will give each student the opportunity to change roles and do the game show routine several times. Or, to involve the whole class, the instructor can select the best presentation from each small group for viewing by the entire class.

     With a little additional work, this activity can also serve to teach aspects of culture by cutting out pictures of unique articles from Hispanic countries instead of familiar objects from local newspapers. Or, the game can offer practice in a discussion of foreign currency if students work with current information about exchange rates and have to guess the prices in pesos, pesetas, lempiras, colones, etc. The game could even be extended into a larger unit by making students aware of the per capita income of one or more Hispanic countries and having them calculate how much of that income would be needed to purchase some things that most of them take for granted.

     Whether used as part of a larger, more serious unit or simply as a fun way to review the names of objects and numbers, this activity motivates student participation and sharpens their listening and speaking skills. No doubt Hispania readers will think of many additional variations for their own students. [873]





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IDEA: Putting Conversation Back in Classroom Practice

Kathleen Bueno

Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville



Abstract: Folders and kits provide effective ways of promoting communicative small group practice in beginning Spanish classes.

Key Words: collaborative small group tasks, precommunicative practice, comparatives, superlatives, direct and indirect object pronouns, vocabulary



     Grammar practice remains a necessary evil in the beginning level Spanish classroom. Practice often entails a teacher's question, a student's response, and a teacher's verification or correction of the student's response. A frequent variation on this pattern involves two students. One asks a question and the other responds. With this pattern the teacher also verifies the accuracy of the students' exchange. Classroom exchanges become a tedious litany of answers to a lesson instead of the communicative exchanges that we hope to encourage. Collaborative small group tasks can transform structural drills into precommunicative practice that enhances language proficiency.

Collaborative small group tasks involve second language learners in activities that require students to employ certain structures in conversational exchanges. These collaborative small group tasks can be used after new material has been introduced and a short more traditional drill has been completed. Collaborative small group tasks also provide excellent opportunities to recycle vocabulary and to review troublesome grammatical items that are difficult to master and that never go away (for example, ser/estar, direct object pronouns, or the preterite and the imperfect). In addition, they can be structured to allow students to express their own ideas which proves to be both motivational and essential for building proficiency. By organizing these tasks in folders or kits, classroom teachers can develop a library of collaborative activities that they adapt to accommodate new vocabulary topics and different grammatical structures.

     Folios de la moda is one example of a collaborative small group task developed for an Elementary Spanish class. With Folios students practice making comparisons of equality, making comparisons of inequality, and using the superlative. To create Folios the instructors will need seven file folders. For each folder, they must collect a group of magazine pictures. Each group of pictures should depict a variety of articles of clothing of different styles. Teachers staple these pictures to the inside front cover of the file folder. On the inside of the back cover of the file folder, they staple a copy of the task sheet. The task sheet for Folios de la moda instructs the small group of students (1) to name as many of the articles of clothing in the pictures as they can, (2) to make a comparison of equality [874] using tan + adj/adv + como based on one or more pictures in the collection, (3) to make two comparisons of inequality using más... que or menos... que, (4) to use two of the following words to make a comparison: mejor, peor, menor or mayor, and (6) to make a statement about an outfit using the superlative with el/la más... de. Instructors may wish to include bonus items such as: use the expression más de in a sentence, use the absolute superlative (-ísimo) in a sentence or use tanto como in a sentence. Students take turns creating responses. Each student may record his/her sentences on the response sheet or a designated group leader may record the group's responses. As a follow-up activity, classroom teachers can make transparencies of newspaper advertisements featuring clothing. These transparencies serve as vehicles for involving the whole class in critiquing new fashions. In this manner, students practice the different grammatical structures used to make comparisons collaboratively in a nonthreatening manner. The instructor is free to work with individuals or small groups that need extra help and to challenge students that have mastered the structures.

     Te cambio is an example of a kit designed to review the use of direct and indirect object pronouns and vocabulary from past chapters. To create Te cambio the teacher needs a large manila envelope, smaller letter sized envelopes, magazine or newspaper pictures, and index cards. After assembling the students in groups of four or five, the teacher provides each group with a letter-size envelope containing a set of pictures and an index card with a list of four categories. The object of this collaborative small group task is to be the first group to obtain one picture of each of the four categories on the index card. Four sample categories might include: objetos para la clase, objetos de valor, cosas para los viajes, and pasatiempos y diversiones. The following is an example of the types of classroom exchanges generated between groups with this task:

-Tienen ustedes un objeto de valor?
-Sí, tenemos un reloj.
-Si nos lo dan, les damos una película.
-Sí, se lo cambiamos

     Instructors can construct Dónde está?, a similar kit, using pictures with hidden objects such as those found in Highlights for Children, an educational children's magazine available at most public libraries, or in Where's Waldo? Students work in small groups to find the hidden objects. When students find an object, they must state what object they have found and tell where it is located. A sample exchange among group members follows:

-Veo un gato.
-Dónde lo ves?
-Lo veo al pie de la página.
-Dónde?
-A la izquierda. En la hierba. Lo ves?
-Sí, ahora lo veo.

Tasks that are games create interest and motivate students to interact cooperatively as a team. Classroom exchanges become conversational in nature.

     Structuring classroom activities so that students work in small groups on collaborative tasks represents one way to put conversation back into classroom practice. These types of tasks simulate the circumstances found in most language learning outside of the classroom. In natural language learning scenarios, the topics deal with objects and actions that are being observed at the time the exchange occurs. Learner initiations predominate. Learners focus on presenting meanings that can be linked to express ideas. The native speaker provides a guide to syntactic constructions, and the discourse centers on interactions that facilitate communication and social bonding. In this way, communicative interactions facilitate the development of proficiency in the elementary Spanish class.



WORK CITED

     Handford, Martin. Where's Waldo? Boston: Little Brown, 1987. Highlights for Children. Magazine. Columbus: Edpress.

[875]





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Theoretical Linguistics

Prepared by John Lipski



ArribaAbajo

The Psychological Relevance of Phonological Generalizations in Spanish: An Experiment

David Eddington

Middle Tennessee State University



Abstract: A psycholinguistic experiment aids in determining if the phonological generalizations which appear in the literature on Spanish phonology are psychologically significant for Spanish speakers. The experiment focuses on whether common phonological alternations play a role in native speakers' perceptions of whether two words share a morpheme. The results indicate that they are a significant factor in speakers' perceptions of morphemic relatedness. Therefore, these findings provide some evidence that these phonological generalizations are psychologically valid, and not merely descriptive in nature.

Key Words: psychological reality, experimental approach, psycholinguistics, phonology, Spanish language, allomorphy



1. Introduction

     Much contemporary phonological research has as its goal to discover and formalize salient phonological and phonetic patterns. Furthermore, the claim is often made that these patterns do not merely exist in a corpus of language data, but that they are relevant to speakers' cognitive capacities. Of course, not all patterns are considered significant. Certain alternations are considered significant because of their frequency in the language, or because they are easily incorporated into a formal representation of the phonological system of the language. Uncommon alternations, or alternations which are difficult to formalize are relegated to the domain of suppletion.

     It is the hypothetical dichotomy between common and suppletive alternations which lends itself to experimentation. If language speakers are found to treat alternations which are considered significant by linguists, differently than they do suppletive alternations, that would constitute evidence that the patterns which linguists account for are psychologically significant.

     Contemporary phonological analyses have had success in discovering structures, patterns, and generalizations which are to be found in language data. Because these data have been produced by language speakers, they are available to the speakers to be potentially known, internalized, or captured, However, their mere existence is not proof that speakers have knowledge of them, or utilize them in language production, storage or comprehension. It only demonstrates that those structures and patterns are available to be potentially known or used. In order to determine what is actually known or utilized by the speakers, the focus of the research must turn away from the raw data and back towards the speakers themselves.

     Central to this goal of speaker-oriented research, is an experiment designed to determine whether linguistically naive Spanish speakers treat the alternations which have received attention in the literature, differently than they do suppletive alternations. It is carried out in the spirit of Wheeler's vision of psychological phonology. According to Wheeler (1980, 71),

      The goal of psychological phonology is to discover what generalizations speakers make from phonological data, not what generalities linguists can discover by analyzing such data in accordance with the principle of maximal generalization.

The experiment is an extension of an experiment by Ohala and Ohala (1987). [876]



2. Ohala and Ohala's Experiment

     Ohala and Ohala's (1987) experiment involved measuring the degree to which the test subjects perceived pairs of words to have a morpheme in common, or in other words, the degree to which the words are perceived as derivationally related. The use of derivational relatedness in experiments on phonological generalizations is not unmotivated. The rules which underlie phonological alternations are designed to account for the different allomorphs of a single morpheme. Therefore, a logical way of testing their significance, is to determine their role in what words speakers perceive as having a morpheme in common.

     A common assumption is that in order for two words to contain the same morpheme, they must be perceived as being both semantically and phonetically similar. The question Ohala and Ohala ask is whether there is a third factor which plays a part in determining morphemic relatedness -the frequency of a phonological alternation in the language. That is, are words which have frequently occurring, well-attested, phonological alternations perceived as being related more often than words which have infrequent alternations?

     The word-pair extreme/extremity, for example, contains one of the frequent alternations of the English vowel shift ([]~[]). Because of its frequency, this alternation is considered significant. The alternation which holds between pope/papal ([ow]~[ej]), on the other hand, is not well-attested in English. Therefore, it is suppletive. If the frequency of an alternation is a factor which speakers use to determine derivational relatedness, then a case can be made that the generalizations which underlie these alternations have psychological significance for those speakers as well.

     Ohala and Ohala tested this hypothesis by means of a questionnaire. It consisted of pairs of words. About half of the word-pairs contained frequently occurring phonological alternations such as the one in extreme/extremity. Alternations of this type will be called regular alternations. The other half contained uncommon alternations that must be considered suppletive (pope/papal). These alternations will be referred to as isolate alternations. The purpose was to determine if word-pairs with regular phonological alternations would be perceived to have a morpheme in common more often than word-pairs with isolate alternations. The subjects judged each word-pair on a five point scale. They first judged each word-pair for derivational relatedness. Later each pair was judged for semantic similarity.

     Ohala and Ohala found that the frequency factor (regular versus isolate alternations) did not affect the subjects' judgements of whether the words in the pair shared a morpheme. In other words, a word-pair containing a regular alternation was not judged to share a morpheme to a greater extent than a pair with an isolate alternation. Of course, the subjects ratings of semantic similarity allowed the different pairs to be judged at the same level of semantic similarity. Ohala and Ohala conclude that,

      Whether the word-pair exhibits a phonologically well-attested pattern or not plays no role in subjects' judgements that the word might be derivationally related... It would appear that native speakers, unlike linguists, cannot recognize a linguistically significant generalization when they see one. (1987, 232)

The importance of Ohala and Ohala's study is that in it, they develop a methodological tool which can be utilized to determine the psychological status of phonological generalizations. However, their results are somewhat suspect because the statistical assumptions which they used to arrive at their conclusions are unclear.

     Ohala and Ohala calculated three different correlations and compared them. They calculated the correlation between the semantic and derivational relatedness scores of the isolate word-pairs, of the regular word-pairs, and then of the combination of isolate and regular word-pairs together. They found that the amount of variance accounted for by the regular pairs, as well as by the isolate pairs, does not differ substantially from the amount of variance accounted [877] for by the combination of all the word-pairs taken together. They do not specify exactly what analysis they used to determine that there was no substantial difference between the amounts of variance accounted for.

     The question which the experiment attempts to determine is whether the isolate and regular groups of word-pairs are significantly different from each other. That is, whether one group rated significantly higher on the scale of derivational relatedness than the other. However, instead of comparing the two groups to each other, Ohala and Ohala compared the two groups to a third group. The third group was comprised of all the word-pairs, both regular and isolate. The real question is whether the means of the isolate and regular groups differ significantly from each other, not whether they differ from the mean which results when the two groups are combined.

     It is also unclear why Ohala and Ohala chose to carry out a correlational analysis instead of an analysis of variance (ANOVA). Correlational analyses determine the extent to which two factors are related. In this case, a correlational analysis can determine whether there is a relationship between the subjects' derivational relatedness scores and their semantic relatedness scores. However, the objective of the experiment is to discover whether word-pairs with regular alternations are rated higher on the scale of derivational relatedness than word-pairs with isolate alternations. The objective is not to calculate if there is a higher correlation between derivational and semantic relatedness for one group than there is for the other.

     Unlike a correlational analysis, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) allows one to decide if the means of two or more groups are different enough that they can be considered separate groups. It can also determine if the means of the groups are merely different samplings of the same population, and are therefore, not significantly different. The experiment described below utilizes Ohala and Ohala's methodology, but the interpretation of the results is calculated by means of an ANOVA.



3.0. The Word-pair Experiment

     The purpose of the experiment is to determine if naive Spanish speakers have any knowledge of the phonological generalizations in their language. Phonologists have used the frequency of phonological patterns in order to determine what patterns are significant. However, this does not mean that these patterns are significant for linguistically naive speakers. For example, Skousen (1973, 172-73) speculates that,

Speakers may, in fact, miss the so-called obvious generalizations and instead set up what may seem to be unnatural and complex morphophonemic rules. We cannot assume what speakers will do with the data they are confronted with in learning a language.

In order to discover what role generalizations play for linguistically naive speakers of Spanish, I carried out the following experiment.



3. 1. Subjects

     The 25 subjects were all natives of Spain, most of them (16) from Navarre. Seventeen women and eight men took the questionnaire. Twenty of them were between 18 and 20 years old, and the remaining five were between 32 and 49 years old. The average level of education was high; 15 of the subjects had studied until the ages 19 to 22, two had studied until or beyond 26 years of age, and the remaining eight concluded their formal studies between the ages of 14 and 18. Three subjects acknowledged having studied linguistics or philology, which in Spain usually means having studied prescriptive grammar and literature.



3.2. Stimulus Materials

     The purpose of this questionnaire was to compare word-pairs which demonstrate well-attested, regular alternations, with word-pairs that contain uncommon, isolate alternations that cannot be derived from general rules. In order to do so, I devised [878] the list in Table 1. It contains 36 isolate word-pairs and 36 regular word-pairs.



Table 1
Regular and Isolate Word-pairs
                       Isolate Pairs
                     cueva/cavidad     'cave, cavity'
salud/sanatorio 'health, hospice'
selva/salvaje 'jungle, savage'
dos/ambos 'two, both'
ojo/óptico 'eye, optical'
vida/vivir 'life, to live'
mundo/vagabundo 'world, vagabond'
rana/renacuajo 'frog, pollywog'
herejía/herético 'heresy, heretic'
sangre/sanguíneo 'blood, blood, adj.'
campeón/competencia 'champion, competition'
Teruel/turolense 'Teruel, native of Teruel'
inglés/anglicano 'English, Anglican'
cazar/captar 'to hunt, to capture'
brazo/braquial 'arm, arm, adj.'
costilla/cosquillas 'rib, tickles'
barra/parrilla 'bar (of iron), grill'
rito/rutinario 'ritual, routine'
pulso/empujar 'pulse, to push'
mano/mendigo 'hand, beggar'
aguja/aguda 'needle, sharp'
hembra/hermosura 'female, beauty'
cómplice/complacer 'accomplice, to please'
llorar/llanto, 'to cry, cry'
oro/dorado 'gold, golden'
baño/balneario 'bath, health spa'
correr/carrera 'to run, race'
nasal/nariz 'nasal, nose'
gordo/grueso 'fat, thick'
hielo/congelar 'ice, to freeze'
resucitar/resurrección 'to ressurect, ressurection'
amigo/amistad 'friend, friendship'
diez/décimo 'ten, tenth'
revés/reversa 'backwards, reverse'
heredar/herencia 'to inherit, inheritance'
boca/bozal 'mouth, muzzle'
 
                       Regular pairs
saludar/salutación 'to greet, greeting'
vértigo/vertical 'vertigo, vertical'
dividir/divisor 'to divide, divisor'
presumido/presunción 'conceited, conceit'
vil/villano 'vile, rustic'                          [879]
lado/lateral 'side, lateral'
huésped/hospital 'guest, hospital'
margen/marginado 'margin, alienated'
despecho/despectivo 'spite, spiteful'
igual/equidad 'equal, equity'
eje/axial 'axle, axle, adj.'
yegua/equitación 'mare, horsemanship'
crisis/crítica 'crisis, critical'
génesis/genético 'genesis, genetic'
divertir/diversidad 'to amuse, diversity'
bien/beneficio 'well, benefit'
suelto/soltero 'unattached, bachelor'
huelga/holgazán 'strike, lazy person'
comité/cometer 'committee, to commit'
natal/nación 'natal, nation'
ademán/mañoso 'gesture, skillful'
conejo/conexión 'rabbit, connection'
miel/melón 'honey, melon'
insecto/sección 'insect, section'
ducha/conducto 'shower, conduit'
inversa/invertir 'reverse, to invest'
monje/Mongolia 'monk, Mongolia'
reflejo/reflexivo 'reflection, reflexive'
redimir/redentor 'to redeem, redeemer'
que/cual 'that, which'
relato/relación 'story, relationship'
fondo/fundamental 'bottom, fundamental'
desdén/desdeñoso 'scorn, scornful'
lumen/luminoso 'lumen, bright'
colmo/culminación 'limit, culmination'
dicho/dictadura 'said, dictatorship'

     I designed the list with several criteria in mind. As in previous experiments (Ohala and Ohala 1987; Derwing and Baker 1977), I chose words which demonstrate a wide range of possible semantic similarity. In this way, subjects were exposed to a true continuum of word-pairs that could be judged to be very similar, or not similar at all. Since the questionnaire was designed to determine what morphemic and semantic associations naive native speakers may make synchronically, whether a word-pair has a diachronic relationship or not is irrelevant. It is highly possible that in some cases naive speakers relate diachronically unrelated words while failing to relate diachronically associated ones. This, in fact, was found to be the case in several instances; the subjects ratings of derivational relatedness were higher for the historically unrelated pairs carrera/correr, llanto/llorar, and resucitar/resurrección, than they were for the diachronically related pairs pulso/empujar, divertir/diversidad, huésped/hospital, and yegua/equitación. At any rate, it is unrealistic to assume that naive speakers have the same knowledge of historical relationships that linguists have.

     Because the questionnaire consisted of visually presented stimuli, word-pairs were chosen in which there was at least one spelling change in what could be interpreted as the root morpheme (e.g. inver/t/+ir vs. inver/s/+a). This requirement eliminated some alternations which are not represented graphemically, such as the alternation between [k] and [] in apical and ápice 'apical, apex'. [880]

     An attempt was made to roughly equalize the number of changes that occur in the root morpheme of each pair of words, so that approximately the same number of word-pairs in the isolate and regular lists would have the same number of changes. This was done by considering the alternation between a single vowel or consonant, and a vowel or consonant cluster as one change (e.g. h/wé/sp+ed vs. h/o/sp+ital; o/x/+o vs. ó/pt/+ico). Metathesis, as well as the addition of a letter (revés vs. reve/r/s+a), were also counted as one change, therefore there are two changes between he/mbr/+a and he/rm/+osura. Of the isolate word-pairs, 29 have only one change, five have two, and two pairs have three changes. Thirty-one of the regular word-pairs have one change, and five pairs show two changes.

     The regular word-pairs were taken from examples found in the literature on Spanish phonology, or are words that could in principle be derived from the same root by the application of the rules set forth in the literature. Fifteen rule-based alternations are represented in the regular word-pair list (Table 2).

Table 2
Alternations in Stimulus Words
 
I. The pairs saludar/salutación, vétigo/vertical, and lado/lateral are examples of lenition (Harris 1969, 43; Cressey 1978, 91).
II. The alternation between // and /s/ in divertir/diversidad, invertir/inversa, and dividir/divisor may be ascribed to a rule which converts the stem final // or stem final /t/ of a second or third conjugation verb into /s/ in certain contexts (Harris 1969, 143/54; Pilleux 1979, 64-65).
III. Harris considers the pairs yegua/equitación, igual/equidad, and que/cual to 'share a formative' and sets up a rule which relates /k/ and /gw/ or /kw/ in each pair (1969, 153-57), while Hooper accounts for them with disjunctive listings (1976, 63).
IV. The questionnaire pairs despecho/despectivo, ducha/conducto, and dicho/dictadura reflect a rule or disjunctive listing which relates /kt/ and // (Harris 1969, 168-72; Hooper 1976, 8-20).
V. The alternation between /ks/ and /x/ has similarly been described as rule governed (Harris 1969, 168-72; Cressey 1978, 90); eje/axial, reflejo/reflexivo, and conejo/conexión contain this alternation.
VI. The pairs presumido/presunción, and redimir/redentor are examples of nasal assimilation (Harris 1984).
VII. Because velar softening is not represented graphemically, it was difficult to find word-pairs with the alternations //~/x/ and /k/~//; monje/Mongolia is the sole questionnaire item demonstrating velar softening.
VIII. Diphthongization has received a great deal of attention in the literature (e.g. Harris 1985; Hooper 1976, 45-49; García-Bellido 1986). This alternation is reflected in huésped/hospital, suelto/soltero, yegua/equitación, miel/melón, huelga/holgazán, and bien/beneficio.
IX. In crisis/crítica, and génesis/genético nouns ending in /-sis/ correspond to adjectives with /-tik-/ as described by Pilleux (1979, 61-62).
X. Similarly, nouns ending in /-Cen/ correspond to non-nouns with /-Cin-/ as in margen/ marginado, and lumen/luminoso (Pilleux 1979, 56).
XI. The word-pair cometer/comité demonstrates the constraint which prohibits /i/ in the root of second conjugation verbs (Harris 1977).
XII. The fact that /e/ is not found in the root of third conjugation verbs is represented in the pair redimir/redentor (Harris 1977).
XIII. Pilleux considers the alternation between /o/ and /u/ in pairs such as fondo/fundamental, and colmo/culminación to be a morphologically conditioned alternation (1979, 58). [881]
XIV. The alternation in natal/nación, and insecto/sección reflect a rule that transforms /t/ into /s/ (or into in the dialect area these data come from) before a front vowel followed by another vowel (Harris 1969, 142-43).
The alternation between palatal and nonpalatal consonants of the type seen in vil/villano, ademán/mañoso, desdén/desdeñoso has been discussed in terms of rules by Harris (1982), Contreras (1977) and Wong-opasi (1987).

     As with the regular word-pairs, isolate word-pairs were selected which demonstrate a range of possible semantic similarity. In order for an alternation to be considered isolate it could not have been described in the literature on Spanish phonology. For example, the alternation between // and /pt/ (cazar, captar) is not considered significant. The /a/~/e/ alternation of rana, renacuajo is considered an isolate one even though such an alternation has been described in the literature (e.g. leche, láctico 'milk, lactic'). This is because it occurs in a context unrelated to the alternation described in the literature. The /e/ < /a/ does not appear before // in renacuajo, while it is the existence of //, (or at least some precursor of // in a derivation) which triggers the raising of /a/ to /e/ in leche and other words which the rule is designed to account for.

     It is for this same reason that three different isolate pairs with the alternation /a/~/e/ are still considered isolates; selva/salvaje, mano/mendigo, and rana/renacuajo all contain an /a/ that alternates with an /e/. However, there is no phonological or morphological context that these three pairs have in common which would allow them to be considered instances of the same general rule, and hence underlie a generalization (58).

     The reason for classifying an alternation as an isolate one is more often than not, a matter of what intuitively looks isolate. The alternation between // and // in vida/vivir appears to be limited to that one pair of words, but it is entirely possible that some speaker may strongly relate another pair of words with that same alternation, and in that same context. Nevertheless, if an alternation seemed to apply exclusively to only one pair of words, in a unique context, it was considered isolate.

     It is worth noting that three isolate word-pairs contain alternations which are counterexamples to the general rules. Velar softening creates pairs in which a /k/ appears before a back vowel, and which alternates with a // before a front vowel. In brazo/braquial the opposite is true, and in boca/bozal a // appears before a back vowel. Stressless mid-vowels usually alternate with stressed diphthongs, yet there is no diphthong in décimo (compare to diez 'ten').



3.3. Design

     The regular and isolate word-pairs were randomized in regards to the question number they were assigned in the questionnaire, as well as in regards to which member of the pair preceded the other in any given question. Eight filler items, which were not relevant to the study, were also included. The resulting order of 80 test questions appeared in the first part of the questionnaire. The word-pairs were again randomized as above and the resulting order appeared in the second part of questionnaire. As a result, each subject responded to a total of 160 items.

     Studies by Ohala and Ohala (1987), and Derwing and Baker (1977) had three parts. The subjects ranked word-pairs according to semantic, derivational, and phonetic similarity. However, since phonetic similarity was roughly equalized across the regular and isolate word lists, the subjects only rated the words for semantic and derivational similarity.

     The independent variable in this experiment is the category the word-pair belongs to (regular or isolate alternation). The subjects' rating of semantic relatedness is a covariate, and the subjects' rating of derivational [882] relatedness is the dependent variable.



3.4. Procedure

     The first part of the questionnaire determines to what extent the subjects judged each word-pair to be semantically similar. The subjects were given both written and oral instructions. They were asked to judge how similar in meaning they felt that each word-pair was. The subjects rated each word-pair on a Lickert-type scale of one to five. Two examples were included following the written instructions in order to give the subjects a more clear idea of what was being asked of them. The pair pan/pantalón 'bread, pants' was given as an example of an item which was not semantically similar, and therefore, ranked as a '1' on the scale. On the other hand, the item latir/latido 'to beat, heartbeat' would be given a '5' because of the close semantic similarity of the words. The subjects were allowed to take as much time to complete the task as they needed, and the experimenter was present at all times.

     The second part of the questionnaire determines the extent to which the subjects felt each word-pair shared a morpheme, that is the word-pairs' derivational relatedness. After completing the first part of the questionnaire, the subjects were given oral and written instructions for the second part. They were told that two words may look similar out of mere coincidence, or because they share the same root. To illustrate this point, the words pie and piedad 'foot, piety' were given as an example of two words which are similar out of coincidence, and should be given a '1' on the five point scale. The words Madrid and madrileño 'Madrid, native of Madrid', on the other hand, share the same root, which accounts for their similarity. This pair should be assigned a '5' on the scale. In the instructions, emphasis was put on the fact that the subjects were no longer to judge the word-pairs as to how related they were in meaning. Although they would see the same words, the next task was independent from the first.





3.5. Results

     The mean derivational relatedness rating for the word-pairs, at each of the five levels of semantic relatedness, is illustrated in Table 3.

   As can be seen, word-pairs with regular alternations received higher derivational relatedness scores than word-pairs with isolate alternations, at all five levels of semantic similarity. A two-way ANOVA was performed to determine what factors influenced the subjects' judgements of derivational relatedness. The two factors are the nature of the alternation found in the word-pair (regular or isolate), and semantic relatedness. The results appear in Table 4.



Table 4
Results of the ANOVA
 
      Source of Variation DF      Sum of Squares F P[]
Semantic Relatedness 4 2009.8 325.601 0.001
Regular or Isolate Alternation 1 11.289 7.316 0.007
2-way Interactions 4 8.905 1.443 0.217

     No significant interaction was found between [883] the derivational relatedness ratings and the type of alternation in the word-pairs (p .217). The subjects' ratings of a word-pair's semantic relatedness were extremely significant (p .001 level). This is to be expected since there is a strong correlation between peoples' judgements about whether two words have a similar meaning, and whether they contain the same root.

     More important, however, is whether word-pairs with regular alternations would be judged to be derivationally related to a greater degree than word-pairs containing isolate alternations. The graph in Table 3 shows this difference. The lines represent the subjects' mean derivational relatedness rating for the word-pairs, at each of the five levels of semantic relatedness. For example, point 'X' represents the mean derivational rating given to those word-pairs with regular alternations, which were given a rating of '2' on the scale of semantic relatedness. Point 'y' represents the mean derivational relatedness rating of word-pairs with isolate alternations, which were given a semantic relatedness rating of '3'.

     The results of the ANOVA indicate that the distance between the two lines is very significant (p .007). That is, the line representing word-pairs with regular alternations is significantly separated from the line representing word-pairs with isolate alternations. It is interesting to note that the point of greatest divergence occurs in the middle of the semantic relatedness scale. This suggests that the subjects were more likely to perceive word-pairs with regular alternations as derivationally related when they were most unsure of the word-pair's semantic relatedness.



3.6. Discussion

     The results of this study indicate that the type of alternation exhibited by the word-pairs (regular or isolate) influenced the subjects' derivational relatedness ratings. More specifically, word-pairs with regular alternations were judged to share a morpheme to a greater extent than word-pairs with isolate alternations. This suggests that the subjects have knowledge about what patterns are common and uncommon in the morphophonology of Spanish. Furthermore, they put this knowledge to use in determining whether two words have a common root or not.

     The results of this experiment provide some evidence for the psychological significance of phonological generalizations. The regular alternations in the experiment correspond to phonological alternations which are considered significant, while the isolate alternations do not. In the experiment, the type of alternation found in a word-pair was a significant factor in determining the degree of derivational relatedness. Therefore, it appears that phonological generalizations are psychologically real in that they play a role in the subjects' perception of whether the word-pairs are derivationally related or not.

     It is important not to draw any unwarranted conclusions from these results. The subjects in this study were asked to make a very careful, conscious, and deliberate analysis. It would be unjustified to construe these results as evidence that such generalizations play any part in actual perception or production strategies, or in on-line derivation of related words from single underlying morphemes.



4. Conclusions

     The search for generalizations represents an attempt to codify phonological systems, which exist in the minds of language speakers, and are somehow manipulated by them. Therefore, it is highly possible that there is some correlation between the generalizations which are found in a language and the actual knowledge that speakers have about the phonological system of their language. The major premise of the experiment is that if phonological generalizations are psychologically significant, Spanish speakers should treat the phonological alternations they underlie differently than alternations which are suppletive.

     Common (regular) phonological alternations, which exemplify linguistic generalizations, [884] were contrasted with uncommon (isolate) alternations. The experiment involved measuring the degree to which the test subjects perceived pairs of words to have a morpheme in common-their derivational relatedness.

     The outcome argues in favor of a psychological interpretation of phonological generalizations. The subjects perceived word-pairs with regular alternations to share a morpheme to a greater extent than word-pairs with isolate alternations. In other words, the factor regular versus isolate alternation was a significant factor in the subjects' perceptions of derivational relatedness. This suggests that the subjects have made generalizations about what alternations are common and uncommon and put that knowledge to use in determining derivational relatedness.

     These results are by no means definitive. The list of regular and isolate word-pairs is central to the experiment. One thing which will strengthen the validity of the results of the word-pair experiment will be to replicate it with a different set of test words. If similar outcomes are achieved, then the results are less likely to be due to the test material, and more likely to be dependent on the type of alternation exhibited by each pair of words.

     In any event, it is my hope that this experiment will stimulate others to probe the minds of language speakers in order to discover what kinds of knowledge speakers have about their language. As far as phonological generalizations are concerned, once a large body of evidence has been amassed on them, their role in language processing will become more apparent and more definite conclusions may be reached. (59)



WORKS CITED

     Contreras, Heles. 1977. Spanish Epenthesis and Stress. University of Washington Working Papers in Linguistics 3: 9-33.

     Cressey, William. 1978. Spanish Phonology and Morphology: A Generative View. Washington D. C.: Georgetown UP.

     Derwing, Bruce L., and William J. Baker. 1977. The Psychological Basis for Morphological Rules. Language Learning and Thought. Ed. John Macnamara. New York: Academic. 85-110.

     García-Bellido, Paloma. 1986. Lexical Diphthongization and High-mid Alternations in Spanish: An Autosegmental Account, Linguistic Analysis 16: 61-92.

     Harris, James W. 1969. Spanish Phonology. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT UP.

     _____. 1977. Aspects of Spanish Verb Morphology. Studies in Romance Linguistics. Ed. Michio Peter Hagiwara. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury. 44-60.

     _____.1982. Spanish Syllable Structure Assignment is Cyclic. Current Research in Romance Languages. Eds. James P. Lantolf and George B. Stone. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana U Linguistics Club. 71-85.

     _____. 1984. Theories of Phonological Representation and Nasal Consonants in Spanish. Papers from the XIIth Linguistic Symposium on Romance Languages. Ed. Philip Baldi. Amsterdam: Benjamins. 153-68.

     _____. 1985. Spanish Diphthongization and Stress: A Paradox Resolved. Phonology Yearbook 2: 31-45.

     Hooper, Joan B. 1976. An Introduction to Natural Generative Phonology. New York: Academic.

     Ohala, Manjari, and John J. Ohala. 1987. Psycholinguistic Probes of Native Speakers' Phonological Knowledge. Phonologica 1984. Eds. Wolfgang U. Dressler, Hans C. Luschützky, Oskar Pfeiffer, and John R. Rennison. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 227-33.

     Pilleux, Mauricio. 1979. A Morphophonological Functional and Semantic Analysis of Spanish Suffixes from a Synchronic Point-of-view. Diss. U of Pittsburgh.

     Skousen, Royal. 1973, On Limiting the Number of Phonological Descriptions. Glossa 7: 167-78.

     Wheeler, Cathy J. 1980. On the Relationship Between Phonology and Psychology. Papers in Linguistics 13: 51-100.

     Wong-Opasi, Uthaiwan. 1987. Lexical Phonology and the Spanish Lexicon. Diss. U of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

[885]





ArribaAbajo

Impositive Speech Acts in Northern Andean Spanish: A Pragmatic Description

Isabel Bustamante-López

University California Riverside

Mercedes Niño-Murcia

University of Iowa



Abstract: Northern Andean Spanish NAS possesses a complex system of structures which are used in impositive speech acts. NAS speakers choose from several grammatical possibilities when they ask their interlocutor to perform an action. The selection seems to be governed by the complex rules of politeness in the NAS communities. We summarize the grammatical possibilities and attempt to explain how the different forms are used to indicate different levels of politeness. The discussion of pragmatics and semantics in impositive sentences gives insights into Andean societies and their forms of talk.

Key Words: Spanish dialectology, pragmatics, politeness theory, speech act, theory, Andean studies



0. Introduction

     Participants in conversational exchanges make frequent use of impositive speech acts by which we mean the verbal interaction in which the speaker asks the hearer to perform an action. The different manifestations of the petition are called impositive utterances or impositive sentences. This paper summarizes and discusses the most frequent types of impositive sentences in Northern Andean Spanish (NAS) as manifested in their allocutionary variants of requests and commands (60).

     We gathered data from Spanish-speaking communities in southern Colombia and the Ecuadorian highlands as far south as Loja (See Map 1). Informants are native speakers of Spanish unless otherwise indicated. We have extracted most of our samples from natural conversations recorded in the area, with one sample from a written source.

     The findings demonstrate that the impositive acts used by NAS speakers not only differ at the grammatical level from the general patterns in Spanish but also show subtle pragmatic dialectal differences. In spontaneous conversational exchanges NAS speakers choose among various syntactic forms: imperative forms, the synthetic future, periphrastic verbal forms, and combinations of forms to formulate a command, an attenuated command or a polite request. This is the continuum according to which the degree of politeness increases gradually; that is to say, the command is softened or mitigated until it reaches the level of a polite request or entreaty. The syntactic forms used by NAS speakers in impositive speech acts set this dialect apart from other varieties of Spanish (61). This phenomenon is of interest not only from the purely linguistic point of view but also because the linguistic behavior exhibited in impositive speech acts in the northern Andean variety of Spanish provides insights into social values and power relationships among speakers in this area.

     Two general types of impositive utterances are generally recognized. Orders are used in interactions in which the speaker has power over the hearer; in contrast, requests are used in at least three different types of interaction patterns as Haverkate (1979: 70) has pointed out: [886]

     1) The speaker has power over the hearer, but does not want to make it explicit.
     2) No power relation holds between the speaker and the hearer.
     3) The hearer has power over the speaker.

Speakers use certain linguistic devices to mitigate requests, that is, speakers make use of various allocutionary categories to stress the appeal of the speaker to the willingness of the hearer (Haverkate 1979:84-85).

     According to Brown and Gilman (1960: 255), as cited by Haverkate, One person may be said to have power over another in the degree that he is able to control the behavior of the other. This means that there is an asymmetrical relation between the speaker and the hearer (Haverkate 69). Brown and Gilman (op.cit.) further explain that in power relations there are many bases of power, such as physical strength, wealth, age, sex, institutionalized role in the church, the state, the army or within the family. Although it is believed that these bases are universal, they may vary from culture to culture (Haverkate 67).

     Since in NAS the rules of politeness are very complex, we categorize the impositive utterances examined as follows: command or order, attenuated command and polite request or entreaty.

In an order or command the speakers asks his interlocutor to perform an action. The speaker can instruct his hearer to do something, or can direct the hearer with authority and power. The speaker may assume a dominant position and may exercise absolute authority. The order or command stresses peremptoriness and may indicate arbitrary exercise of power. By using a command a speaker may be imposing on the listener a task as duty.

     In the case of attenuated commands the speaker politely or courteously asks the interlocutor to perform an action. The hearer does not hold power nor authority over the speaker. The expressions used are almost an invitation to the hearer to ask for something, acknowledging the options that the hearer has.

     Finally, in the case of polite requests the speaker begs the hearer to perform an action as a kindness or favor, the forms used usually imply social superiority of the hearer over the speaker.

     The choice between these variants, frequently, depends on the social relation between the speaker and the hearer. This relation determines which type of utterance or sentence will constitute the most strategic device for obtaining the communicative goal. Therefore, the basic function of the allocutionary act is to determine the context of the interaction and the strategy to be used.

     The allocutionary act, that is to say the strategy of verbal interaction, must be evaluated positively by the hearer in order for the speech act to be successful; therefore, the performance of an impositive act originates in the intention of speakers to get the hearer to behave according to their wishes or needs (Haverkate 1979: 13). This explains the proliferation of strategies for an impositive speech act versus a non-impositive one.

     NAS linguistic practices (selection among command or order, attenuated command and polite request) show a great deal of allocutionary devices to stress respect for feelings of the hearer. In addition, as we have already noted, NAS speakers possess a set of linguistic devices to elicit from the hearer a positive reaction to his speech act that differs from the set used by speakers of other dialects of Spanish. As a result, NAS speakers, in general, are perceived by Spanish speakers from other dialects as extremely polite. In the next section we will briefly discuss standard forms and then we will illustrate NAS forms in their situational contexts.



1. Impositive sentences in standard Spanish

     In standard Spanish the imperative form allows the speaker to exhort, order or beg the interlocutor to perform an action. Lorenzo (1980) explains that Spanish verbal [887] system includes the following forms to indicate a command or plea with the verb venir 'to come':

Affirmative    Negative
 
      Second person singular ven no vengas
venga usted no venga usted
Second person plural venid no vengáis
vengan ustedes no vengan ustedes

In addition, the Spanish system has other structures that can be used by the speaker in impositive speech acts. One example is sentences that include the modal verb poder 'can' in the conditional podría 'could' or the past subjunctive form pudiera 'could,' followed by the infinitive of the main verb of the clause:

    (1) Podría decirme la hora?
'Could you tell me what time it is?'
(2) Pudiera ayudarme?
'Could you help me?'

In many cases the expression por favor precedes or follows the request. In other instances the request is preceded by variants of this expression:

      (3) Tenga la bondad de decirme la hora.
'Please have the kindness of telling me the time'
Hágame el favor de decirme la hora.
'Do me the favor of telling me the time'
Tendría la bondad de decirme la hora?
'Would you please have the kindness to tell me the time?'

In some cases hypothetical clauses are used to indicate politeness:

      (4) Si me hiciera el favor de decirme la hora.
'If you could do me the favor of telling me what time it is'

In (1) to (4) syntactical devices are used to soften the impositive sentence to have a positive reaction on the part of the hearer.

     Lorenzo (1980) classifies Spanish impositive sentences into two categories: (1) expressions through which the speaker asks/orders the hearer to do something, or (2) expressions through which the speaker begs the hearer to act. He further differentiates levels of politeness as indicated through different syntactic forms: interrogative sentences as in (5), present indicative as in (6), infinitive as in (7), present subjunctive as in (8), and ir (to go) + gerund as is (9):

      (5) Quiere Ud. abrir la puerta?
'Do you want to open the door?'
(6) Tú te vas y Ud. se queda.
'You (informal) go and you (formal) stay'
(7) Tú, a trabajar.
'Go to work'
(8) Que te calles.
'Be quiet!'
(9) Vete cerrando las puertas.
'Start closing the doors'


     Lorenzo also indicates that other markers exist that signal or reinforce the meaning of command or begging, as in: A ver si -followed by present indicative as in (10):

      (10) A ver si te mejoras pronto = mejórate pronto
'Get better'

In general, the degree of politeness may be increased by adding to the impositive sentence expressions such as por favor 'please'. Synthetic future forms and periphrastic constructions with deber 'must, ought to' and tener que 'to have to' may also serve as commands and requests. Lorenzo provides the following examples:

      (11) Tú harás lo que te digan.
'You will do as they say.'
(12) Tú debes estudiar ahora.
'You must study now'
(13) A las nueve tienes que estar en la esquina.
'You have to be at the corner at nine'

In spite of the fact that the standard Spanish system has these various possibilities, [888] NAS speakers have adapted several innovative ways of signaling commands discussed in the next section.



2. NAS linguistic repertoire

2. 1. Commands or orders.

     To address one interlocutor, NAS speakers, as in other Latin American varieties of Spanish, use imperative forms in the second person singular tú, vos, or usted depending on the degree of social distance between the speaker and the interlocutor that the speaker wishes to signal. In general, the use of marks the speaker's relative position of authority over the hearer, while the use of usted conveys a greater degree of equality.

     Consider the following examples of one mother's interactions with her daughters. In talking with her younger daughter, she asks her to throw away some orange peels, using :

        (14) -Ve, Carolina. Allá hay basura. Anda y bota.
Verb (V)-Imperative-tú (informal you)...
V-Imperative-tú (informal you)... V-Imperative-tú (informal you)
'Go, (you familiar) Carolina. The garbage (can) is there. Go (you familiar) and throw it away'

That same afternoon the mother in talking to her older daughter uses the usted form:

      (15) -Vaya, Cintia, a jugar con las guaguas.
V-Imperative-Usted (formal you)
'Go (you formal), Cintia, (and) play with the children'

That same speaker, during a serious political discussion with her oldest daughter, alternates between the formal usted and informal forms as if the shift between forms of address created a more balanced power-relationship that could motivate her daughter to perform according to the mother's desire:

      (16) -Dime una cosa, Julita...
V-Imperative-tú (informal you)
'Tell (you familiar) me something, Julita'
(17) -Vea, mijita, nunca converse...
V-Imperative-Usted (formal you)
'Look (you formal), honey, you should not talk...' (formal you)

In this case the mother starts by using the form and when she realizes she cannot convince her daughter, she switches to the usted form. The use of the usted form is also accompanied by a suprasegmental change in the mother's voice to indicate distance.

     The case of vos is more complex; it is often found in interactions between equals, as illustrated by the following examples.

      A worker asks his coworker to open the door for him:

  (18) -Abrí.
V-Imperative(vos)
'Open up'

     Friends yell to encourage another friend to continue hiking a hill:

      (19) -Subí, Chabela, subí.
'Up, Chabela, up (vos form)'
V - Imperative (vos), Chabela, V - Imperative (vos)
A woman needs help fast and she shouts to the interlocutor to indicate urgency:
(20) -Vení, Chabela, vení.
V - Imperative (vos), Chabela, V - Imperative (vos)
'Come, Chabela, Come'

The vos imperative is also used in vertical relations when the speaker has authority over the addressee. However, our data does not have examples of that case.

     Finally, imperative forms in second person plural ustedes also appear in our corpus to address more than one interlocutor. In the plural, of course, there is no formal/informal distribution. An example is the following form:

     A woman talking to her maids:

   (21) -Traigan breve unito!
'Bring (you plural) one quickly'
V-Imperative-you plural


2.2. Attenuated command

     In NAS many ways exist in which a rich system of expressive derivation interacts with speech acts, in particular the highly developed system of diminutives, involving not only nouns and adjectives, but also verbs, adverbs and clitics, as in (21) to (26). [889] Another example of the interaction between diminutives and impositive speech acts is a request formulated in the imperative mood but softened by means of a diminutive. In Nariño, Colombia and Tulcán, Ecuador, the-ito/-a suffix is attached even to the imperative form to soften the command as in

      (22) Hagamelito.
'Do it for me, please'
V-Imperative- Ud. (formal you)- diminutive - masculine marker
(23) Pasamelito.
V-Imperative-tú (informal you)- diminutive - masculine marker
'Pass it to me, please'
(24) Demelita.
V-Imperative- Ud.(formal you)-I(a)- diminutive - feminine marker
'Give it to me, please'
(25) Prestemelito.
V-Imperative- Ud. (formal you)-I(o)- diminutive - masculine marker
'Lend it to me'

In (22) to (25), -ito/-ita softens the commands. The -ito or -ita is added depending on whether the gender of the direct object is masculine or feminine: Hágamela > hagamelita; hágamelo >hagamelito).

     In addition to the diminutive suffix -ito/a, in the Ecuadorian Highlands speakers use nomás in the utterance to soften a command (Toscano Mateus 1953: 266), as in (26), and (47). Otherwise, the standard imperative forms are perceived as authoritarian. Our data (22-26) have confirmed Toscano Mateus's statements.

      (26) Venga nomás.
V-Imperative- Ud. (formal you) -softening particle
'Come, please'

It should be noted that this combination of forms with similar meaning is used by speakers of other Andean and Latin American dialects as well.



2.3. Polite requests

2.3.1. Synthetic future forms as softened commands

     NAS speakers often use the synthetic future to soften a request. The synthetic future forms used as commands do not replace the standard imperative forms but rather constitute a mitigating device of the imperative (Yépez 1984; Niño-Murcia 1992). Begging intonation enhances the mitigating effect of the grammatical structure in this type of utterance. Synthetic future forms are an important component of the imperative system of NAS, and show a high frequency as compared to other softening devices. The synthetic future as an impositive speech act is one of most oblique forms in the NAS repertoire. In affirmative polite requests the clitic follows the verbal form and in the negative form the clitic precedes it.

     A friend saying good bye to a friend:

      (27) Escribirásnos, María
V-future-tú (informal you) -indirect object pronoun...
'Please I beg you that you write to us, María'

     An employer talking to her workers uses the following commands:

       (28) No te olvidarás de la comida al perro.
Negative marker-indirect object pronoun-V-future-tú (informal you)
'Please I beg you not to forget to feed the dog'
(29) Fijaráste que no falte nada en la cocina.
V-future-tú (informal you) -indirect object pronoun...
'Please I beg you to make sure that everything needed is in the kitchen'
(30) Ayudarás a la Anita.
V-future-tú (informal you)...
'Please I beg you to help Anita'
(31) No te olvidarás de mí, Martita.
Negative marker-indirect object pronoun-V-future-tú (informal you)...
'Please I beg you not to forget me, Martita'

     Giving money to the maid to buy bread she says:

      (32) Pondrás en el bolsillito.
V-future-tú (informal you) -preposition- definite article- noun diminutive
'Please I beg you to put (this) in your pocket.'

     At the market a woman asks me to watch [890] her bags:

      (33) Verá los saquitos.
V-future-Ud. (formal you) -definite article- noun-diminutive-plural
'Please I beg you to watch my bags'

What all the previous samples have in common is the tone of entreaty/plea/begging. With reference to word order in cases in affirmative polite requests as in (27) and (29), the indirect object pronouns is attached to the synthetic future form. In negative polite requests the indirect object pronoun precedes the synthetic future form, that is follows the same pattern of the word order of the standard imperative sentence, as in (28) and (31).

     It is important, nonetheless, to point out that the synthetic future not only is used in conversational impositive acts but also appears in written texts in which authors try to imitate spontaneous speech, as well as in written instructions. The following prescription given by a doctor to a patient is a good illustration:

      (34) Tomará con los desayunos una cápsula...
V-future-Ud. (formal you)
'Please I beg you to take a capsule with breakfast...'
(35) Se aplicará pasando dos días una ampolla (62)...
V-future-Ud. (formal you)
'Please, get a shot in two days'
(36) Tomará con los desayunos una cápsula...
V-future-Ud. (formal you)
'Please I beg you to take a capsule with breakfast...'

To speakers of other dialects examples (34) to (36) may seem to be a different kind of use of the synthetic future more related to time than to modality; however, NAS native speakers interpret these utterances as a polite way of giving medical prescriptions. This would be the form used by the doctor when giving oral instructions to the patient on how to take medications. At the end of the same prescription sheet, however, there is a switch to the standard usted imperative and the infinitive forms:

            (37) Dígnese traer estas indicaciones cuando regrese a la consulta. En caso de consulta telefónica leer estas indicaciones.
V-Imperative-Ud. (formal you)-reflexive pronoun... Infinitive...
'Please bring these instructions on your next visit. If you call on the phone read these instructions'

This case is worthy of consideration because speakers of this variety of Andean Spanish use the standard command forms if they need to formulate a command in written form.

     The alternation of forms also appears in conversational exchanges. In the following excerpt taken from a conversation between the owner of a flower shop and one of the researchers, the researcher asks the owner what places to visit in Quito, to which she replies:

      (38) Iráse al museo del Banco Central.
V-future-Ud. (formal you)...
'Please I beg you go to the Central Bank Museum'
(39) Váyase a Calderón.
V-Imperative-Ud. (formal you)...
'Please go to Calderón'

As in the case of imperative forms (22, 23, 24 and 25) there are also cases in which the diminutive suffix -ito/ita is attached to the synthetic future command as in:

      (40) Enseñaramelito no? No sea malito.
V-future-Ud. (formal you)-IO pronoun DO pronoun (I) -diminutive
'Please I beg you to show it to me. Won't you? Please be nice!'

In this case the speaker uses the -ito suffix to make his command even softer, it is as if he/she were remarking the utterance over and over again to soften the request.

     The use of the synthetic future as a softened request or command is so embedded in the NAS system that NAS speakers use synthetic future forms as interjections as in -Verás! 'You will see', instead of the imperative Ve/Mira, forms used by speakers of other dialects of Spanish.



2.3.2. Periphrastic forms: polite requests

     In addition to the forms discussed above, NAS speakers make use of two unique periphrastic [891] forms when asking for a favor: Dar-Vgerund and dejar-Vgerund.



2.3.3. Dejar - Vgerund

     NAS speakers also use the dejar 'to leave' -Vgerund construction in impositive speech acts. By using this construction in the standard imperative, a NAS speaker signals a forceful command to the interlocutor and indicates that he/she has more power than the latter. However, NAS speakers may soften the command by using the expression in the synthetic future form as in (41):

     At a construction site a foreman asks one of the workers to leave the window closed:

      (41) Dejarás cerrando esa ventana.
Dejar (leave)-Future-IO pronoun-Vgerund
'Please close that window before you leave'

It is important to point out that by using the synthetic future the speaker lowers his/her power in the conversational exchange and conveys respect to the interlocutor; that is to say, the speaker may diminish social distance and soften the impositive utterance by using the synthetic future form. The speaker also diminishes social distance by using the second person singular form (informal you).



2.3.4. Dar- Vgerund

     NAS speakers use dar -Vgerund as a polite command form. As Toscano Mateus 1953: 284) indicates, this form is used when the speaker wants the hearer to perform an action instead of himself, that is, it is a benefactive case and it is suitable in a number of contexts as we shall see (63). Although dar, the main verb in this construction, may appear in the indicative mood, this construction is more often used in the imperative mood to express the idea that something is to be done as a favor for the person who requests it.

      (42) Deme comprando el pan.
Dar (give) -Imperative-Ud. (formal you)-IO pronoun-Vgerund
'Would you please buy bread'

     We must emphasize that this form encodes a special politeness value, a cultural value. An interaction that took place in Aponte (Nariño, Colombia), between a bilingual (Inga-Spanish) speaker and one of the researchers, illustrates how this impositive speech act is perceived in the community. At the village telephone office the operator asked one of her customers to close the door, using the expression deme cerrando la puerta 'Would you please close the door'.When she was asked if it would not be more appropriate to say por favor, cierre la puerta, 'please, close the door' the operator emphatically rejected the proposed alternative. To her, it sounded cold, impersonal and impolite and she argued that such use would show no manners towards the customer. Her interpretation exemplifies the general value of courtesy expressed by this periphrastic form.

     However, the verb dar 'give' may also appear in its future form in order to further soften the polite request, giving it the tone of plea. The use of the synthetic future allows the speaker to signal to the hearer a higher degree of politeness as illustrated by the following examples.

     At the post office the teller begs the interlocutor to watch her window saying:

         (43) Daráme viendo. Ya vuelvo. Un ratito.
Dar (give) -Future-IO pronoun-Vgerund
'Would you please watch the window] for me? I beg you. I'll be right back. For just a moment'

A similar grammatical construction is used in (44), when the lady of the house is requesting of her maids that they take care of the plants:

      (44) Darán regando las maticas.
Dar (give) -Future-you (plural) -IO pronoun-Vgerund
'Please, water my plants. I beg you'

In (43) and (44) the presence of the indirect object gives the request more specificity by means of stressing who the beneficiary is. The degree of politeness does not change by the use of the clitic, but the command becomes more precise. Let us consider dará(n) vs. dará (n)- me, nos, le, les, and we will see that in the latter case the beneficiary is clearly stated whereas in the former it remains open to any interpretation. It is as if the absence of indirect object [892] allowed the anonymity of the beneficiary.



3. Combination of standard and nonstandard forms

     From the presentation above we may conclude that both standard and nonstandard impositive sentences are part of the NAS system. It is important to note that in some cases, the syncretism of both forms is apparent as in the following examples. In (45), the polite formula tenga la bondad de... precedes the analytic form darme sacando el pan.

     The maid asks the lady of the house to take some bread out:

       (45) Tenga la bondad de darme sacando el pan.
'Would you please kindly get the bread out of the oven]?'

In (46) the formula por favorcito is also followed by the analytic form déme cerrando:

     At school a teacher asks one of the researchers:

      (46) Por favorcito, déme cerrando la puerta.
'Please (-diminutive) close the door for me

In (47) the synthetic future form is followed by nomás:

      (47) Iráse nomás a su casa tranquilo.
'Go home (-nomás) and don't you worry about it'

     We infer from the forms discussed above that NAS has a complex system of signaling different ways of marking impositive sentences for different levels of politeness. A more detailed analysis of the contexts in which these forms appear, and of the relationships between speaker and interlocutor or addressee as well as their attitudes during conversations reveals a wide range of semantic distinctions available to speakers of this dialect.



4. Person deictics and levels of politeness

     According to the Real Academia de la Lengua Española (1986: 460) the choices for impositive speech acts at the verbal and pronominal level are rather restricted. However, in NAS there are several options as we discussed above.

     In terms of deictics for the interlocutor NAS speakers may use vos, or usted when talking to their interlocutor. The selection of the deictic form is determined by the power and solidarity between the speaker and the interlocutor. As Anderson and Keenan point out (1985: 270) in many languages:

      Person deictics commonly code information concerning the social status of the speaker, the addressee, or a third party referred to, as well as the social or personal relationship between them. More specifically, person deictics may reflect whether Speakerl and Adr[essee], Sp[eaker] and third party, or Adr[essee] and third party are of the same or different social rank, sex, or age group; kin related in designated ways; personally intimate, etc...

     NAS speakers make the selection of the utterance to be used in the impositive speech act carefully taking into consideration the feelings of the interlocutors. For this reason, the difference between and usted forms is very important. A Quiteño speaker explains that if a woman says to her maid:

      (48) Comprarásme el pan.
'Please buy (informal you) some bread for me'

the woman is showing no respect to the maid. In this case the speaker is using the second person singular informal you () to ask for a favor. According to the informant the employer should phrase the command as follows, using the formal you (usted):

      (49) Compraráme el pan.
'Please buy (formal you) some bread for me'

Otherwise, rules of politeness have been violated. If we look at (48) Comprarásme and (49) compraráme, the only difference between the two forms is -s that marks second person tú. The absence of an indirect object pronoun makes it more of an impersonal command. On the one hand, we have two participants in a communicative interaction; the one who has more power is the [893] one giving the command, and therefore it would be expected the form will be used. Nevertheless, the use of would be considered an infringement of politeness.

     The same distinction is signaled with dar-Vgerund forms as in the case of a housewife asking her maid to buy bread. An informant explains that if the employer formulates a request as follows:

      (50) Darásme comprando el pan.
'Please buy me some bread [because I can't go]

it is obvious that the employer does not know how to treat people kindly. The appropriate way will be:

     (51) Daráme comprando el pan.
'Please buy some bread [I can't go]'

The use of the form in (50) does not show solidarity but rather the power that the employer is exerting over the maid. The use of the usted form, as in (51), shows respect and solidarity towards the employee. From the previous examples we can infer that in this dialect the use of the usted versus the form in a conversational exchange between an employer and a subordinate, indicates different levels of politeness. As Ervin-Tripp (1986: 232) indicates based on previous studies, pronoun alternations, names or titles, tone of voice, grammatical forms, vocabulary may mark deference.

     Furthermore, as Anderson and Keenan (1985: 272) explain, some European languages such as French or German may indicate certain distinctions through the use of two different forms for the second person imperative forms. In standard Spanish it is possible to make social distinctions with the use of and usted forms; however, in NAS the system is even more complex due to the inclusion of the vos form, which is even less informal than tú. Also, the verbal and the pronominal vos forms allow NAS speakers to indicate to the interlocutor the need to perform the action immediately; the urgency is indicated by using the vos form as in (20). Nevertheless, in many instances speakers and interlocutors who perceive each other as equals use the and vos command forms interchangeably: Ven/Vení 'Come.'

     NAS speakers use several pronominal forms to make reference to their interlocutor(s).

      Second person singular Second person plural
Ud.: Formal you ustedes: You (plural)
tú: Informal you
vos: Informal you

The different forms may vary only in the use of alternate pronominal forms marked in the verb form (vos, or usted forms). Anderson and Keenan (1985: 272) have already suggested that Indicators of respect and deference are not limited in their occurrence to independent pronominal forms, but may occur as well as part of the bound morphology of a language. This is exactly what we find in NAS.

     To summarize, NAS speakers have the following options to indicate different degrees of politeness in impositive speech acts:



      Verbal Affixes
Imperative    Pronominal forms
V- -a/-e 2nd pers. informal you: tú
V- -á/-i 2nd pers. informal you: vos
V- -e/ -a 3rd pers. sing. formal you: Ud.
V- -en/ -an 3rd pers. pl. you plural Uds.
 
Future
V- -ás 2nd pers. sing. informal you: tú
V- -ás 2nd per. sing. informal you: vos
V- -á 3rd pers, sing. formal you: Ud. (usted)
V- -án 3rd pers. pl. you plural: Uds. (ustedes)
[894]  
Dar-Imperative-Vgerund
D-a-(IOPr.)-V-ndo 2nd pers. sing. informal you: tú/vos
D-é-(IOPr.)-V-ndo 2nd pers. sing. formal you: Ud.
D-en-(IOPr.)-V-ndo 3rd pers. pl. you (pl.): Uds.
 
Dar-Future-Vgerund
Dar- -ás - V-ndo 2nd pers. sing. informal you: tú/vos
Dar- -á - V-ndo 3rd pers. sing. formal you: Ud.
Dar- -án - V-ndo 3rd pers. pl. you (pl.): Uds.

The formal possibilities allow NAS speakers to signal a variety of semantic meanings. Based on our data and taking into consideration the relationships between speaker and hearer, we deduce that the NAS impositive speech act system allows the marking of different level of politeness through several grammatical features. The forms are listed below in a hierarchical order of more to less polite ways of asking someone to do something.



Semantics Forms

          
Polite Requests
Power-Politeness Cerrará nomás su casa
V-3rd pers. sing. Future (Fut.) -Softening particle...-DO
 
Power-Politeness Por favorcito, deme cerrando la casa
Polite expression-diminutive-dar-3rd pers. sing. Imperative (Imp.) (Ud.)
 
Power-Politeness Tenga la bondad de darme cerrando la casa
V-3rd pers.Imp. (Ud.)-Polite expression-dar-IO-V-ndo
 
Power-Politeness Hágame la fineza de cerrar la casa
V-3rd pers.Imp.-Polite expression -VInf....
 
Power-Politeness Enseñaramelito
V-3rd pers.sing. (Ud.) Fut. -IO-DO-diminutive
 
Equal Power-Politeness Escribirásnos
V-2nd pers.sing.Fut.. (tú/vos)-IO
 
Polite Requests: asking for a favor
Power-Politeness-Benefactive case Dejará cerrando la puerta
Dar-3rd pers. sing. (Ud.).fut.-V-gerund
 
Power-Politeness-Benefactive case Dejarás cerrando la puerta
Dar-2nd person sing. fut.-V-gerund
 
Power-Politeness-Benefactive case Daráme cerrando
Dar-3rd pers. sing. Fut.-IO pron.-V-gerund
 
Power-Politeness-Benefactive case Darásme cerrando
Dar-2nd pers. sing. fut.-IO pron.-V-gerund
[895]
Power-Politeness-Benefactive case Déme cerrando
Dar-3rd person sing. (Ud.).Imp.-IOpron. -V-gerund
 
Power-Politeness-Benefactive case Dáme cerrando
Dar-2nd pers. sing.Imp.-IO pron. -V-gerund
 
Requests
Power Venga nomás
V-3rd pers.sing.Imp. (Ud.) -nomás (polite particle)
 
Commands
Power Venga
V-3rd pers.sing.Imp. (Ud.)
 
Equal power Ven
V-2nd pers.Imp. (tú)
 
Equal Power- (Urgency) Vení
V-2nd pers.Imp. (vos)

After reviewing the peculiarities of the NAS repertoire, we conclude that the data contradict what has been previously said in the literature in reference to mood and modality in Spanish. In standard Spanish, as Bybee (1985: 171) states, for languages in general, The imperative mood is the form of the verb used in issuing direct commands or orders. Direct commands are restricted to a second person subject, so in many languages the imperative has only two forms, one for singular and one for plural. This is certainly true of standard Spanish. On the other hand, the standard Spanish forms are just one of the choices that the NAS speaker has, as we have seen in section 2. The NAS repertoire also includes the synthetic future, periphrastic verbal forms, and combinations of forms to formulate a command, an attenuated command or a polite request.

     For languages in general, imperatives and subjunctives appear in non-asserted clauses (Bybee 1985: 193). In the case of Spanish, argumentative texts examined by Lavandera (1983: 229), show that speakers use the indicative and subjunctive moods strategically. She further indicates that in the texts examined, shifts to utterances with the subjunctive mood take place when the speaker switches to issues that he neither wants to leave unmentioned nor wants to make the center of discussion (...) On the other hand, utterances in the indicative mood are used the rest of the time to describe 'events' and 'conditions' which support the speaker's stand in what he presents as uncontroversial issues and from which he claims to be drawing conclusions (Lavandera 230).

     Furthermore, in reference to the future, Bybee, Pagliuca and Perkins (1991: 28) propose that the imperative use of futures develops out of the reinterpretation of a secondary speech act: In a situation in which the speaker has authority over the addressee. As Toscano Mateus (1953: 257-59) and Niño-Murcia (1992) have already pointed out, this form is used in the NAS region to indicate a polite request. In our data, the synthetic future is used both by the speaker who has more authority than the hearer and by the speaker who is in a position of lower authority than the hearer. In the case of NAS the semantic development of the synthetic future has continued its own specific development.

     The data discussed above show that NAS speakers have a wide selection of devices used in impositive speech acts. The system described not only includes standard Spanish-specific rules of politeness, but also innovative rules that NAS speakers have incorporated. [896] As a result, NAS presents a complex system that speakers utilize when asking their interlocutors to perform an action. This complex system describes NAS impositive sentences and at the same time illustrates Andean conversational strategies and the corresponding cultural values. Furthermore, it shows an acute awareness of the rules of politeness that the speaker must follow in Andean interactions.

     Although we do not treat in depth possible causes for the development of the complexity of the NAS impositive system, it is very possible that the centuries-long contact between Spanish and Quichua, with the resulting impact of Quichua on Spanish, has been quite significant. As Bybee (1985: 193) indicates for languages in general, lack of uniformity in the expression of various moods... can also be explained diachronically since different markers may have originated from different sources throughout time. This observation can be applied to the NAS impositive system, given the language contact situation in which Spanish has evolved. The Quichua system has a set of communicative functions that are indicated through specific grammatical structures (morphemes and particles), whereas Spanish has basically one form: the subjunctive. For this reason, we believe that the complex set of impositive structures in NAS is the result of an attempt to capture the subtleties of the Quichua system.

     Andean politeness places every member of the community hierarchically. This is reflected in the complex set of structures NAS speakers use in impositive speech acts. The crucial fact is that different pragmatic norms reflect different hierarchies of values. As Lavandera (1983: 231) points out regarding shifts of moods in Spanish discourse difference in form may signal some difference in meaning, unless there is clear evidence to the contrary. Thus, any difference in form for impositive utterances (in addition to clear prosodic differences not pursued here) signals differences in both meaning and pragmatic value. Furthermore, in order to describe a linguistic community accurately, it is important to link language-specific norms of interaction with specific cultural values, such as impositive speech acts and cordiality and courtesy in Andean culture (64).



WORKS CITED

     Albor, H. R (1973). DA - Gerundio, Un Quechuismo? Y otras maneras de atenuar los imperativos. Hispania 56: 316-18.

     Anderson, S. R. and E. L. Keenan. (1985). Deixis. In Language. Typology and Syntactic Description: Grammatical Categories and the Lexicon. vol. 3. Ed. Timothy Shopen. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 259-308.

     Brown, R., and A. Gilman. (1989). Politeness Theory and Shakespeare's Four Tragedies. Language in Society 18: 159-212.

     Brown P. and S. Levinson. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

     Bybee, J. L. (1985). Morphology: A Study of the Relation [897] between Meaning and Form. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

     Bybee, J. L, W. Pagliuca, and R. D. Perkins. (1991). Back to the Future. In Approaches to Grammaticalization. Vol, 2. Ed. E. C. Traugott and B. Hiene. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. 17-58.

     Ervin Tripp, S M. (1972). On sociolinguistic rules: alternation and co-occurrence. In Directions in Sociolinguistics. Ed. John J. Gumperz and Dell Hymes. Great Britain: Basil Blackwell. 218-50.

     Haverkate. H. (1979). Impositive Sentences in Spanish: Theory and Description in Linguistics Pragmatics. North Holland Linguistic Series 42. Amsterdam, New York: North-Holland. Publishing Company.

     Lavandera, B. (1983). Shifting Moods in Spanish Discourse. In Discourse: Perspectives on Syntax. Ed. F. Klein Andreu. New York: Academic Press. 209-36.

     Lorenzo, E. (1980). La expresión de ruego y de mandato en español. El español de hoy, lengua en ebullición: estudios y ensayos. Madrid: Gredos.

     Niño-Murcia, M. (1992). El futuro sintético en el español norandino: Caso de mandato atenuado. Hispania 75: 705-13.

     Searle, J.R. (1969). Speech Acts. An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

     Toscano Mateus, U, (1953). El español en el Ecuador. Revista de Filología Española, Anejo 41. Madrid.

     Wierzbicka, A. (1991). Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: The Semantics of Human Interaction. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

     Yépez Lasso, M. (1984) El futuro indicativo como imperativo en el español de Quito. Tesis de grado. Instituto de Lenguas y Lingüística de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador. Quito.







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Hispania Features

[899]

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READ. ME Editorial: Acknowledgments and News

Estelle Irizarry



Acknowledgments 1995

     Very special thanks to our truly outstanding Book Review Editor Janet Pérez, of Texas Tech University, who is leaving after the maximum nine years of service to Hispania. Impeccable in complying with deadlines and meticulous in editing, Janet has been truly generous with her time and expertise. In addition to making our book review section a model in the field, she has refereed manuscripts and offered advice to potential authors at the Hispania information sessions. It is nothing short of extraordinary to have handled thousands of books received, to have assigned and distributed hundreds of volumes, and to have edited and brought to publication some 1200 book reviews in 36 issues! And throughout these nine years, Janet has continued to be one of the most productive and respected scholars in the field of twentieth-century literature, with important articles, books, and collaborative ventures such as the indispensable Dictionary of literature of the Iberian Peninsula which she co-edited with Maureen Ihrie.

     Former Editor Ted Sackett joins me in gratitude to Janet for a job well done:

Los Angeles, July 11, 1995

     As Janet Pérez completes nine very distinguished years as Review Editor for Hispania, six in collaboration with my editorship followed by three with the present Editor, Estelle Irizarry, I want to take the opportunity to express publicly my awareness of our profession's debt to her for a difficult job, extraordinarily well done. The Review section of Hispania is one of the most extensive, and therefore, most important in the Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian professional world. During the past nine years (and for many years before, as well) reviewers have been selected carefully and fairly, on the exclusive basis of their proven professional qualifications. Janet has been extremely careful to avoid publishing reviews by friends of authors as well as diatribes and unfair attacks. She has also chosen the books to be reviewed with a degree of knowledge and care that could only be exercised by a humanist like her. Everyone who has dealt with her over these many years has received prompt and courteous attention, and I can affirm additionally as former Editor, that the copy and galley corrections for her section were always submitted to me more than on time. When Hispania moved into the electronic era in recent years, Janet adapted early and well to the necessary new procedures.

     I would like to say, in closing, that of the hundreds of individuals with whom I worked closely during my nine years as Editor, I can think of no one who was more efficient, professional, and pleasant to work with than Professor Janet Pérez. AATSP members and the entire profession are in her debt for her tireless contributions to our discipline.



Theodore Alan Sackett, Editor 1984-1992                  



*

Farewell and sincere thanks to the following AATSP colleagues who have worked hard in their diverse positions on the Hispania staff:



Frederick deArmas, Pennsylvania State University, reader in the field of Golden Age Literature since 1993, has provided invaluable -and always prompt- advice to authors and to the Editor.



Howard Fraser, College of William and Mary, compiled the annual Dissertation List, which experienced exponential growth during his nine-year tenure. Behind these carefully prepared reports in the May issues was a lot of hard work in distributing questionnaires to graduate schools throughout the nation and organizing vast amounts of data. In addition, Howard has served as reader for manuscripts in Latin American literature.



T. Edward Harvey, Brigham Young University, Hawaii, kept us abreast of cultural happenings throughout The Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian World, which now includes articles as well as news reports. Ed has also read manuscripts and advised members about writing and submitting to Hispania at our information sessions.



Mark Larsen, of Utah State University, ably edited our computer section as it developed and kept pace with the latest technologies. In addition to designing the efficient encoding system that we use for sending manuscripts for review via electronic-mail, Mark has evaluated manuscripts in literature and contributed numerous reports and reviews.



Walter C. Oliver, California State University, San Bernardino, brought computer expertise [900] and creativity to one of our most popular features -the advertising section, as well as to the computer session at the 1995 annual meeting.

*

The Editor wishes to express sincere thanks to Production Editor, Joe Feustle, Jr., University of Toledo, whose expertise in desktop publishing is evident in every issue we publish. Gracias also to the entire Hispania staff whose names appear on the Hispania masthead, and to the following colleagues for their invaluable help in 1995.



      Tamara Al-Kasey, Carnegie-Mellon University
Blanca de Arancibia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza
Karen Breiner-Sanders, Georgetown University
Clancy Clements, Indiana University
Joseph Collentine, University of Northern Arizona
Domnita Dumitrescu, California State University
Dwight García, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Bayamón
Gilda Gely, University of Toledo
Orlando Kelm, University of Texas
Ronald Leow, Georgetown University
Enrique Mallén, Texas A & M University
Ana Teresa Pérez-Leroux, Pennsylvania State University
Uthaiwan Wong-Opasi, Tennessee State University
Richard D. Woods, Trinity University

My personal thanks to editorial assistants Amy Sachrison and Igone Arteagoitia, who helped with a heavy load of submissions, galleys, and correspondence with energy, dedication, and good cheer.

*

Several new names will appear on the Hispania masthead in 1996:



Taking over as Book Review Editor is Genaro Pérez, Texas Tech University, with a distinguished record as a scholar and as founder and editor of The New South Quarterly, 1967-1969; guest editor (spring 1985), editor of Literatura Peninsular section, and Vice-director of Discurso Literario; and founder and editor of Monographic Review/Revista Monográfica.



Domnita Dumitrescu, California State University, will prepare the expanded Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian World section in 1996, for which she invites the collaboration of our membership. The section publishes both news items and articles on culture.



J. Christopher Eustis of Virginia Tech, who has already distributed the dissertation forms for the annual Dissertation List, will compile the results for the May 1996 issue.



Nancy Modern, University of New Hampshire, who has edited Pedagogy, Secondary Schools for the past three years and provided encouragement and inspiration to many an author, is now an Associate Editor.



Elías G. Rodríguez, of the B.T. Washington ARTS High School in Dallas, Texas, will assume the position of Advertising Manager in 1996. He has contributed his time and expertise to the Lone Star Chapter, where he was Coordinator for the NSE exams. [901]



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Contract for Publication in Hispania



(Upon receiving notification of acceptance, the author should sign two copies and mail them to the EDITOR, who will sign and return one copy.)

THIS IS AN AGREEMENT ENTERED into by ____________________________________________________, henceforth known as AUTHOR and Estelle Irizarry, henceforth known as EDITOR as agent of the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, henceforth known as PUBLISHER regarding an original work by the AUTHOR entitled ___________________________________________, henceforth known as the WORK

The AUTHOR recognizes that publication of the WORK is contingent upon its being of satisfactory quality in the judgment of the EDITOR, and the decision as to whether to publish the WORK lies in the sole and final discretion of the EDITOR.

The AUTHOR guarantees that the WORK is solely and completely of the AUTHOR's production and therefore belongs to the AUTHOR with exclusion of any other person.

The AUTHOR guarantees that the WORK has not been previously published in whole or in part nor is in press or currently under consideration in whole or in part for publication other than by the EDITOR.

The AUTHOR guarantees that the WORK in no way infringes upon any copyright or proprietary rights of others and that it does not contain anything unlawful, libelous, or in violation of any right of privacy.

The AUTHOR hereby assigns to the PUBLISHER the copyright to the WORK whereby the PUBLISHER shall have the exclusive right to publish the WORK and translations of it wholly or in part in any medium, including electronic media, throughout the World during the full term of copyright including renewals and extensions and all subsidiary rights subject only to the following:

      The AUTHOR retains the right to republish the WORK in any collection consisting exclusively of the AUTHOR's own works after a period of five years from the date of publication in Hispania without charge, subject to notifying the PUBLISHER of the intent to do so and to including in the republication the notice Published previously in Hispania the issue number, date, and page numbers.

The AUTHOR agrees to hold the PUBLISHER and EDITOR harmless from any and all liability, expenses, or damages arising out of the contents of the WORK or the publication of any unlawful matter.

The execution of this agreement by the AUTHOR will constitute an exclusive grant to the PUBLISHER of a complete release of all publishing and proprietary rights in and to the WORK in any format, including electronic reproduction, and in all languages throughout the world, and for the original and all subsequent reproductions.

The EDITOR agrees to send AUTHOR a set of galley proofs for the AUTHOR to read and correct in the manner and time stipulated by the EDITOR, but the EDITOR retains final authority to allow or disallow any changes deemed unnecessary.

AUTHOR must maintain membership in the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese from the year of submission through and including the year of publication.

If all of the above guarantees and conditions have been met and this contract signed by the AUTHOR, the EDITOR agrees to publish said WORK in Hispania.



Signed: ______________________Date: _________         
AUTHOR                                                          
Signed: ______________________ Date: _________         
EDITOR                                                            

[902]



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The President's Corner

Jean S. Chittenden



     (President's Address at the Seventy-seventh Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 10, 1995.)

     It is a true pleasure for me to speak to you tonight at a time when the growing interest in foreign languages, especially those of the Americas, affords us such exciting opportunities. In planning the program for this year's Annual Meeting, we have addressed the demands put on us by our expanding enrollments and the changing priorities of our students. It is of primary importance that AATSP take a leadership role in implementing a coherent and workable foreign language curriculum that has as one of its goals articulation between elementary, secondary, and college courses. The National Standards for Foreign Language Education that are now being developed will give us a foundation on which to build in this endeavor. I urge each of you to help in this effort, from which all of us will benefit.

     The Executive Council during this year has sought ways in which to involve more members in AATSP activities. We are proposing changes to the By-Laws that will add three more Executive Council members elected by the general membership. We are studying the committee structure in order to assure that the current committees function effectively and to establish new committees that will address organizational concerns that we have identified. One of our principal agenda items is the National Spanish Exam. The National Spanish Exam Committee, which was appointed two years ago, and the Exam Coordinator have worked to avoid past problems with the administration of the exam. In response to requests from secondary teachers, the Exam Director has endeavored to make it more proficiency based. Next year's exam will reflect this new orientation, although the change must be made carefully and with deliberation.

     The Annual Meeting here in San Diego is going extremely well. It is very rewarding to see such a large turnout of old and new members. The registration has exceeded expectations, we have an excellent program with sessions on numerous topics, and there are more exhibitors than ever before. All of this augurs well for AATSP.

     As for future planning, your officers hope to continue policies that will keep members actively participating in AATSP and to design programs that will focus on our common interests, regardless of the level or type of classes that we teach. As always, your suggestions are invaluable to us, and we have tried to take them into consideration in our planning this year. We all have the same goal of doing the best job we can to teach our students communicative skills and to impart to them our love for the culture. By working together, sharing ideas, and learning from each other, we can achieve this goal much more quickly.

     The recognition of the international character of our present day life, our role of leadership in the world, the long-term foreign commitments of our government, the cultural exchange of students, teachers, and technicians, the international nature of science, trade accords such as the North American Free Trade Agreement, all have contributed to increased interest in language as communication. Awareness of world cultures is essential for the leaders of tomorrow. Millions of Americans presently work and travel overseas each year. It is hard to ignore the importance of foreign languages and cultures in the life of the educated American today. For us as language teachers, the challenge of preparing students both linguistically and culturally for the expanding international job market makes it imperative that we respond to their needs and expectations by offering more courses in language and culture than have been available in the traditional curriculum. Certainly AATSP offers us an ideal forum for working together in implementing these curricular reforms.

     But, while we are much more interested in understanding and speaking languages than in the past, we hope that our students will eventually be able to use their linguistic ability to pursue the literature of the foreign tongues they have learned, for reading literature in the original language is always much more meaningful and rewarding than reading translations. Language and culture, after all, are the foundation on which a literature exists. I submit that one of the most gratifying and enduring experiences for us and for our students is to bring them to an appreciation of how literature reflects human values. Although our thoughts usually turn immediately to the so-called canonical works that appear on reading lists for undergraduate and graduate students, we need not restrict our classroom readings to those works. It is important [903] to consider the context in which students are working, along with their maturity and interests, when we choose literature for them to read.

     Last year I taught a course in which we read a contemporary novel, Temblor, by Rosa Montero, a relatively young Spanish novelist. The students loved the story, which is set in a post-nuclear-holocaust world. The text raises a myriad of issues such as death, immortality, abuse of power, love, feminism, the fragility of the material world, and the perception of reality and imagination. Basically an adventure story in which the real and the fantastic are mixed, the novel is suitable for a variety of classes, since it can be read and interpreted on many levels, depending on the experience and sophistication of the readers. My students enjoyed the story, but they also engaged in profound discussions of the philosophical and social concerns inherent in the text, thereby practicing the language in a situation that was meaningful to them.

     Our more sophisticated language students can read Nobel prize winners such as Gabriela Mistral, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Pablo Neruda, Jose Ángel Asturias, Gabriel García Márquez, Vicente Aleixandre, and Camilo José Cela. Or they can discover El sentimiento trágico de la vida, with Unamuno, who himself learned Danish so that he could read Kierkegaard in the original. Or they can study the works of Antonio Machado, who believed that we must create God because we need God, but for whom God was still una bendita ilusión, dentro de mi corazón. And, of course, one of the greatest experiences for the student is to be able to read in Spanish the first modern novel, El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha and dream the impossible dream along with El caballero de la Triste Figura. For those who try to interpret and look for hidden meanings, there are seemingly infinite possibilities in this book.

     In his book on Cervantes, Aubrey Fitz Gerald Bell points out that among the various interpretations of Don Quijote are the concept popularized by Byron that Cervantes had smiled Spain's chivalry away, and that of Ruskin who condemned it as a deadly book because all true chivalry is thus by implication accused of madness and involved in shame (201). Samuel Putnam, in the introduction to his well-known translation of the Quijote, asserts that Cervantes' purpose was not social, but aesthetic and philosophical in nature. He argues that Cervantes was attacking the kind of novel that was being written about knights (28-29). In addition to satirizing the novela de caballerías, however, as Donald Bleznick pointed out in his presidential address two years ago, Cervantes created two real characters, Don Quijote and Sancho Panza, who interact with each other and influence each other to grow and mature during the course of the novel (Hispania, December, 1993).

     Beyond this character development Cervantes dealt with a theme that is relevant to all of us, that of reality and illusion. Don Quijote's reality is as valid for him as Sancho's is true for Sancho. Thus arises the question of the nature of reality, a theme that can be found in much contemporary literature. Certainly it plays a major role in Temblor, the book I used in my class, and in what has been known as el realismo mágico. Don Quijote always has what appears to be a logical explanation for the discrepancy between his reality and Sancho's, and thereby he can keep intact his view of what is true, But what is truth? What is the real truth behind the appearance of things? How far can we go in creating our own individual truth that will serve our soul's need? Samuel Putnam says, Don Quijote is the first work, the first comedy, of its kind, embodying a humor based upon the incongruous clash of reality and appearance and not to be disassociated from the 'tragic sense of life' that haunts Unamuno (32). Don Quijote seems to say, I will act as if the world were what I would have it be, as if the ideal were the real. Certainly this as if 'brings to mind Kierkegaard, Sartre, Unamuno, and the Existentialists; it is the applicability of this theme in our day that keeps this novel ever new and exciting. By his view of reality as he would have it be, Don Quijote was able to continue with his impossible dream of justice for all and of righting the wrongs of the world -a dream which the idealist in all of us can still hope to fulfill.

     By selecting readings that appeal to the students, by enhancing our classes with audio-visual materials, and by helping students find themes that are relevant to their lives, we can introduce literature into the classroom in such a way that it will contribute to the students' linguistic proficiency and to their cultural understanding. The reading list concept of literature is no longer viable for us today. What matters is not the number of works read, but how the student benefits and learns from them -in terms of language, culture, and human values.

     In conclusion, I would like to thank all of you for your cooperation during this year. The Executive Director, the Editor of Hispania, the Executive Council, the committee chairs and members, those who have worked to arrange [904] this outstanding meeting, and the membership at large have been superb in their support. On behalf of both myself and AATSP, muchas gracias!





[905]

ArribaAbajo

Professional News

Prepared by Eduardo Zayas-Bazán



NEWS ITEMS

Instituto hispánico de estudios políticos. Sede: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Objetivo: Velar por lo que significa España como nación y como proyecto de futuro. Se prevé que en los proyectos de este Instituto puedan participar todas las universidades y comunidades autónomas que lo deseen. ABC (25-IV-1995). Se resume así los temas de estudio de esta institución: La relación de las distintas autonomías entre sí y como parte integradora de España; cómo se estudia la historia de España en cada una de las comunidades autónomas; cómo se estudia la geografía y la lengua.

Industria editorial española en EE.UU. Según informa El País (27-111-95), los empresarios españoles del libro han puesto sus ojos en el mercado de los EE.UU. He aquí los compromisos de cooperación de los empresarios del ramo en esquema: Alfaguara, del grupo Santillana, colabora con Vintage de Random House; Planeta distribuye sus libros a través de Ballantine, también del grupo de Random House. Plaza y Janés tiene distribuidores propios en New York, Florida, Texas y California, pero está tramitando la distribución de sus libros con el grupo Batan-Dobleday Dell. Se pretende colocar en el mercado norteamericano unos treinta y seis títulos por año.

César Oro         
Howard University         


The United Nations Interpreters: A Historical Perspective. A video entitled The United Nations Interpreters: A Historical Perspective is being developed under the joint sponsorship of the UN 50 Trust Fund, Philipps Communications and Security Systems, and the International Association of Conference Interpreters. The video will be 45 minutes long and is being produced Europacific Productions. Evelyn Moggio-Ortiz, an interpreter at the UN, New York, originated and promoted the idea for the project. The video will be launched in November 1995 in both PAL and NTSC format. Those interested in obtaining a copy should write to Ms. E. Moggio-Ortiz, 21 East 94 Street, Apt. 2, New York, NY 10128.

The Jerome Quarterly,         
May-June 1995         


IV Congreso de la Asociación Argentina de Hispanistas. Entre el 18 y el 20 de mayo de 1995 se realizó en Mar del Plata el IV Congreso de la Asociación Argentina de Hispanistas. Concurrieron al mismo más de doscientos participantes de la Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, México y los Estados Unidos, quienes presentaron comunicaciones y, además, se organizaron paneles sobre Literatura Española, Hispanoamericana y Lingüística. Carlos García Gual, de la Universidad de Madrid, pronunció una conferencia y el poeta José Hierro hizo una lectura comentada de sus poemas.

     La Asociación ha encarado un proyecto colectivo de estudios sobre los escritores que surgen hacia 1898 en España, en conexión con las literaturas hispánicas en su conjunto, y con vistas a su V Congreso en 1998. La coordinadora será Emilia de Zuleta. Todos aquellos que se interesen en el tema deben escribirle a: Lamadrid 753, 2do., 5500-Mendoza, Argentina. Tel: 061-288140.

     Para el trienio de 1996-1998 se eligieron los siguientes funcionarios: Presidenta, Melchora Romanos; Vicepresidentes, Dinko Cvitanovic y Lila Perrem de Velasco; Secretaria, Gloria Chicote; cuatro vocales de las Universidades de Buenos Aires, Mar del Plata, Tucumán y Cuyo; y la Coordinadora de Relaciones Internacionales, Emilia de Zuleta.



AAUSC Volume in Language Program Direction. The AAUSC announces the seventh volume of their series, Patterns and Policies: The Changing Demographics of foreign Language Instruction, to be edited by Judith E. Liskin-Gasparro. The volume will address the impact of changing demographics on the foreign language programs; student populations, curriculum, materials, and special programs. Deadline for submission is February 1, 1996. Papers are to be sent to: Judith E. Liskin-Gasparro, Dept. of Spanish & Portuguese, University of Iowa, 114 Phillips Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242. Tel: 319-335-2244; Fax: 319-335-2270; Email: judith-liskingasparro@uiowa.edu.



Magical Realism in Latin American literature; A Reevaluation and Update. Scholarly critical articles are sought for a double issue of [906] the literary journal Explicación de textos literarios to celebrate its 25th year of continuous publication. Of special interest are studies dealing with contemporary writers who utilize the vogue of magical realism in their writing. Prospective contributors should submit their completed studies on paper as well as on diskette (3.5 inches) for Macistosh WordPerfect 5.0). The name of the writer, academic affiliation, and address, as well as the title of the study must be on the diskette. There is a publication deadline of February 1, 1996 for consideration. Writers will be notified of the status of their article shortly thereafter. Please submit your study to Professor Harry J. Dennis, Associate Editor, Explicación de textos literarios, Department of Foreign Languages, California State University, 6000 Jay Street, Sacramento, CA 95819-6079.



ACLS Grants for Travel to International Meetings Abroad. For postdoctoral scholars in the humanities and humanistic social sciences who will take an active role in an international meeting held outside the United States and its dependencies during the year beginning June 1, 1996. Award: $500. Info: Office of Fellowships & Grants, ACLS, 228 East 45th Street, New York, NY 10017-3398. FAX: 212-949-8058.



RECENT RELEASES

Cervantes and the Modernists. The Question of Influence, edited by Edwin Williamson and published in 1994 by Tamesis, it is a collection of nine essays and an introduction, by authorities on English, French, and German literatures, as well as by Hispanists. They write on Cervantes and Proust, Mann, Levi, Nabokov, Borges, Goytisolo, Carpentier, García Márquez, Fuentes, and others. They also address wider questions that go beyond Modernism.

Cervantes Society of América, May 1995         



Spanish Videos. Disney Videos in Spanish are available from Carlex. Info: Carlex, P.O. Box 081786, Rochester, MI 48308-1786. Tel: 1-800526-3768. Videos dealing with Spanish Literature, Spanish History and Culture, Latin American Literature, Pre-Columbian History and Culture, and Latin América and the Caribbean are available from Films for the Humanities & Sciences. Info: Films for the Humanities & Sciences, PO. Box 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053. Tel: 1-800-257-5126.

The MaFLA Newsletter         



Newly Recovered Editions. Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage Project announces the availability of the following editions of newly recovered literary works written by Hispanics of the U.S. during the 19th century:

El laúd del desterrado, an anthology of exile Cuban poetry first published in Philadelphia in 1856. Professor Matías Montes Huidobro has prepared the edition with an introduction, notes, biographies, and a bibliography.

Jicoténcal, attributed to Father Félix Varela, the first historical novel written in the Spanish language, first published in Philadelphia in 1826. The introduction, notes, and indexes were prepared by Luis Leal and Rodolfo Cortina.

Who Would Have Thought It?, by Amparo Ruiz de Burton, an historical romance addressing the themes of racism and cultural domination, self-published in 1872 by the author of The Squatter and the Don. The scholarly edition was prepared by Rosaura Sánchez and Beatriz Pita.

     The editions are available from Arte Público Press, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204-2090. Tel: 1-800-633-2783.

Recovering the U.S. Hispanic Literary Heritage,         
Spring 1995          


AWARDS AND HONORS

1995 Harvey L. Johnson SCOLAS Award. Richard D. Woods, former Associate Editor of this column, and professor of Spanish at Trinity University, received this prestigious award for his article Mexican Autobiography: An Essay and Bibliography, which appeared in the December 1994 issue of Hispania.



Odón Betanzos reelegido Director de la Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española. En elecciones celebradas en julio fue reelegido Director de la Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española el poeta, novelista y catedrático español, el Dr. Odón Betanzos Palacios. La reelección fue hecha por unanimidad. La Academia Norteamericana tiene la responsabilidad lingüística de los treinta millones de hispanohablantes en Estados Unidos. Es correspondiente de la Real Academia Española y forma parte de la Asociación de Academias de Lengua Española, integrada por las veintidós academias del mundo hispánico.

     El Dr. Betanzos Palacios nació en Rociana del Condado (Huelva) en 1926 y reside, desde hace años, en Nueva York, en cuya Universidad enseña. [907] Es Licenciado en Letras (M.A.) por la Universidad de Fordham y Doctor en Filosofía y Letras (Ph.D.) por la Universidad de la Ciudad de Nueva York, Centro de Graduados. Entre sus libros caben destacar Santidad y guerrería, antología de su obra poética; Hombre de luz, segunda antología poética; y Diosdado de lo Alto (novela sobre la Guerra Civil Española, en dos partes). En 1986 salió a la luz sus desgarradores Poemas del hombre y las desolaciones y en el 90 De ese Dios de las totalidades. Su tesis doctoral fue hecha sobre las Experiencias vitales en la obra poética de Miguel Hernández.

     El Director reelegido está en posesión de la Encomienda de la Orden de Isabel la Católica, concedida por el Rey de España Don Juan Carlos I; es miembro correspondiente de la Real Academia Española, de la Guatemalteca, Filipina y Chilena de la Lengua, de la Hispanic Society of América y preside la Fundación Cultural Hispánica en Estados Unidos. En 1970 fue declarado Hijo Predilecto de su ciudad Natal, en el 86 le fue concedida la Medalla de la Libertad de Nueva York y en el 90 ganó el Premio Vasconcelos, de Méjico. Con la reelección los miembros numerarios de la Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española aprecian la labor seria y fructífera de su Director.

Nota de prensa, julio 1995         



Antonio Muñoz Molina al Palacio de San Jerónico. Este joven y prolífero escritor acaba de ser nombrado miembro de número de la bicentenaria Real Academia de la Lengua. Muñoz Molina nació en Úbeda, Jaén, hace casi ocho lustros. Esta elección significa una inyección de sangre joven para la Institución que limpia, fija y da esplendor a la lengua de Cervantes.

César Oro,         
Howard University         


WE REMEMBER

Harvey L. Johnson, Professor Emeritus of Spanish and Portuguese at the University of Houston, died on May 29, 1995. Born in Cleburne, TX on September 12, 1904, he received a B.A. degree from Howard Payne College, an M.A. from the University of Texas at Austin, and a Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. He held an Honorary Doctorate from the Universidad Mayor de San Andrés in La Paz, Bolivia. Professor Johnson taught at Rice University, Cedar Crest College, Northwestern University, Indiana University in Bloomington, where he was chair of the Department of Spanish and Portuguese for fourteen years, and ended his career at the University of Houston. He was the author of many books and learned articles. Among honors he received was the work Romance Literary Studies Homage to Harvey L. Johnson, edited by Marie A. Wellington and Martha O'Nan. At the 1984 meeting of the AATSP in Mexico City, a session was held in his honor. He leaves his wife, Margaret, and two sons, Harvey Jr., and Harold.

Houston Chronicle         



A. David Kossoff. I regret to inform readers of the recent death of Professor A. David Kossoff on May 3, 1995, at the age of 76. He had been a professor in the Dept. of Hispanic and Italian Studies at Brown University, retiring in 1883. He was the husband of Ruth Horne Kossoff, also an active member of the RI chapter of the AATSP. After retiring from Brown, Professor Kossoff was awarded the Order of Isabel la Católica by the Spanish government for his many years of service in the promotion of Hispanic culture in the USA. Donations in his honor are being made to the Ruth and David Kossoff Fund or to the A. David Kossoff and Ruth Horne Kossoff Hispanic Book Fund, both at Brown University.

Norma A. Garnett, President         
RI Chapter, AATSP         


FORTHCOMING EVENTS



1995 EVENTS

Conference on Computers in Education, 5-8 December, Singapore. Info: ICCE 95/AACE, P.O. Box 2966, Charlottesville, VA 22902; Tel: 804-973-3987; Fax: 804-978-7449; Email:

aace@virginia.edu.



Modern Language Association of América, 27-30 December, Chicago. Info: MLA, 10 Astor Place, New York, NY l0003-6981; Fax: 212477-9863.



1996 EVENTS

Multiple Media for Language Learning, 25-27 January, Stirling, Scotland. Info: Val Hamilton, Scottish CILT, University of Stirling, Stirling FK9 4LA, Scotland, UK; Fax: +44-1786-467632; Email: vrhl@stirling.ac.uk.



XIV World Congress of the Fédération Internationale des Traducteurs (FIT), 9-16 February, Melbourne, Australia. Info: Fauth [908] Royale & Associates Pty. Ltd., PO. Box 895, North Sydney, NSW, 2060 Australia. Tel: +61 2211 6711; Fax: + 61 2211 6608.



Cuarto Congreso Internacional de literatura Centroamericana, 21-23 de febrero, San Salvador, El Salvador. Info: Jorge Román-Lagunas, Conference Director, Dept. of For. Langs. & Lits., Purdue University at Calumet, Hammond, IN 46323-2094. Tel: 219-989-2632.



Southern Conference on Language Teaching with Alabama Association of Foreign Language Teachers, 29 February-2 March, Mobile. Info: Lee Bradley, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698; Tel: 912-333-7358; Fax: 912-333-7389; Email:

[lbradley@grits.valdosta.peachnet.edu].



Texas Foreign Language Association, 1-3 March, Midland. Info: TFLA, 1 Modiste Drive, Houston, TX 77055; Tel: 713-468-4959.



Southwest Council of Latin American Studies (SCOLAS), 6-9 March, Oaxaca de Juárez, México. Info: Ward S. Albro, Dept. of History, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX 78363; Tel. 512-595-3601; Fax: 512-595-2859; or Lucero Topete, Instituto Cultural Oaxaca, Apartado Postal 340, 68000 Oaxaca, Oaxaca, México; Tel: 951-5-34-04; Fax: 951-5-37-28.



Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics, 11-16 March, Washington, D.C. Info: GURT, Georgetown University School of Languages and Linguistics, 303 Intercultural Center, Washington, D.C. 20057-1067; Tel: 202-687-5726; Fax: 202-687-5712; Email: gurt@guvax.georgetown.edu.



Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, 26-30 March, Chicago. Info: TESOL, 1600 Cameron St., Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22314-2705.



Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 28-31 March, Louisville. Info: CSCTFL, Madison Area Technical College, 3550 Anderson Ave., Madison, WI 53704; Tel: 608-246-6573; Fax: 608-246-6880.



Southwest Conference on Language Teaching, 11-13 April, Albuquerque. Info: Joann Pompa, Mountain Pointe High School, 4201 E. Knox Road, Phoenix, AZ 85044; Tel: 602-759-8449 Ext. 3036; Fax: 602-759-8743.



Southeastern Council on Latin American Studies (SECOLAS), 11-13 April, Miami. Info: Melvin S. Arrington, Jr., Modern Languages, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677; Tel: 601-232-7713; Fax: 601-232-7033.



Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 18-21 April, New York. Info: Northeast Conference.



Pacific Northwest Conference on Foreign Languages, 25-27 April, Tacoma. Info: Ray Verzasconi, PNCFL, Foreign Languages and Literatures, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4603; Email: verzascor@cla.orst.edu.



California Foreign Language Teachers Association, 26-28 April, Sacramento. Info: Hal Wingard, 6450 Lance Way, San Diego, CA 92120.



IV Congreso/Sesión de Trabajo sobre las Relaciones entre las Humanidades y la Ciencia, 24-28 julio, New Brunswick. Info: James D. Anderson, School of Communication, Information, and Library Studies, Rutgers University, 4 Huntington St., Room 316, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1071; Tel: 908-932-7501; Fax: 908-932-6916; Correo electrónico:

[jda@gandal.rutgers.edu].



International Association of Applied Linguistics, 4-9 August, Jyväskylä, Finland. Info: Udo O.H. Jung, Language Centre, University of Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth, Germany; Tel: 0921-553595; Fax: 0921-553594; Email:

[udo.jung@uni-bayreuth.de].



EUROCALL 96, 29-31 August, Szombathely, Hungary. Info: June Thompson, CTI Centre for Modern Languages, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, United Kingdom. Email:

[Eurocall@hull.ac.uk].



Christianity and Literature's Northeast Regional Meeting, 11-12 October, at Regis College, Weston, Massachusetts. Submission of papers for the conference is by February 1, 1996. Info: Joan Hallisey or Mary Anne Vetterling (cochairs), Regis College, 235 Wellesley St., Weston, MA 02193; Email:

paintrock@aol.com.



Minnesota Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 17-18 October, location to be announced. Info: Millie Mellgren, 3055 Rosewood [909] Lane, Plymouth, MN 55441.



New York State Association of Foreign Language Teachers, 18-20 October, Kiamesha Lake. Info: Helene Combopiano, 71 Grand Boulevard, Binghamton, NY 13905.



Texas Foreign Language Association, 18-20 October, Houston. Info: Eugenia Simons, 1320 Modiste Drive, Houston, TX 77055.



Foreign Language Association of North Dakota, 23-25 October, Bismarck. Info: Herbert Boswau, PO box 8198, Grand Forks, ND 58202-8198.



Foreign Language Association of North Carolina, 24-26 October, Greensboro. Info: Wayne Figart, P.O. Box 739, Wilmington, NC 28402-0729; Tel. 910-763-5733.



National Association of Self-Instructional Language Programs, 1-2 November, Washington. Info: NASILP, Critical Languages, 022-38, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122.



American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 22-24 November, Philadelphia. Info: ACTFL, 6 Executive Plaza, Yonkers, NY 10701-6801; Tel: 914-963-8830; Fax: 914-963-1275.



Modern Language Association of América, 27-30 December, location to be announced. Info: MLA, 10 Astor Place, New York, NY 10003-6981; Fax 212-477-9863.



1997 EVENTS

Louisiana Conference on Hispanic Languages and Literatures (LA CHISPA), 27 February-1 March, New Orleans. Info: Gilbert Paolini, Program Chairman, Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118; Tel: 504-866-0315.



Southern Conference on Language Teaching with South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association, 6-8 March, Myrtle Beach. Info: Lee Bradley, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA 31698; Tel: 912-333-7358; Fax: 912-333-7389; Email:

lbradley@grits.valdosta.peachnet.edu.



Teachers of English to Spakers of Other Languages, 11-15 March, Orlando. Info: TESOL, 1600 Cameron St., Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22314-2705; Tel: 703-518-2521; Fax: 703-836-7864; Email: jennifer@tesol.edu.



Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 3-6 April, New York. Info: Northeast Conference, St. Michael's College, 29 Ethan Allen Avenue, Colchester, VT 05446.



Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 10-13 April, Columbus. Info: CSCTFL, Madison Area Technical College, 3550 Anderson Ave., Madison, WI 53704; Tel: 608-246-6573; Fax: 608-246-6880.



Foreign Language Association of North Carolina, 7-11 October, Winston-Salem. Info: Wayne Figart, R 0. Box 739, Wilmington, NC 28402-0739; Tel: 910-763-5733.



American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages with the Tennessee Foreign Language Teaching Association, 21-23 November, Nashville. Info: ACTFL, 6 Executive Plaza, Yonkers, NY 10701-6801; Tel: 914-963-9930; Fax: 914-963-1275.



Modern Language Association of América, 27-30 December, location to be announced. Info: MIA, 10 Astor Place, New York, NY 100036-981; Fax 212-477-9863.



1998 EVENTS

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, 17-21 March, Seattle. Info: TESOL, 1600 Cameron St., Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22314-2705; Tel: 703-518-2521; Fax: 703-836-7864; Email: jennifer@tesol.edu.



Foreign Language Association of North Carolina, 27-31 October, Winston-Salem. Info: Wayne Figart, P.O. Box 739, Wilmington, NC 28402-0739; Tel: 910-763-5733.



American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 20-22 November, Chicago. Info: ACTFL, 6 Executive Plaza, Yonkers, NY 10701-6801; Tel: 914-963-8830; Fax: 914-963-1275.



Modern Language Association of América, 27-30 December, location to be announced. Info: MLA, 10 Astor Place, NewYork, NY 10003-6981; Fax: 212-477-9363.

Gerard L. Ervin         
MLJ         

[910]



ArribaAbajo

The Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian World

Prepared by T Edward Harvey



*Asterisks divide multiple items from the same correspondent or source, identified in brackets.



NEWS OF IBERIA

Antonio Muñoz Molina Becomes the Youngest Académico. El País announced in its June 9, 1995 issue the election on the previous day of the newest and youngest member of the Real Academia de la Lengua, Antonio Muñoz Molina. Born in Úbeda (Jaén) in 1956, the new académico was elected in the third round of balloting, with fourteen votes cast for him. According to the Academy's rules for voting, a two-thirds majority is required in the first two rounds, but election is granted in the third round to the candidate who receives a simple majority. The rival candidate for the chair (designated small u) was Carlos Seco Serrano, a historian who received eight votes in the third round, with five blank votes having been cast.

     A minor controversy had been created when Jose Manuel Caballero Bonald withdrew his candidacy with these words: Con los años me resulta muy incómodo competir con compañeros a los que admiro y aprecio. Caballero Bonald, whose candidacy was supported by Carlos Bousoño, Francisco Ayala, and Claudio Rodríguez, did not rule out the possibility of accepting nomination on a subsequent occasion.

     García de la Concha explained the election of Muñoz Molina over that of Seco Serrano by pointing to the Academy's unwritten tradition of electing creative writers and technicians of the language alternately. This turn fell to the creative writer instead of the technician, Seco Serrano, who is already a member of La Real Academia de la Historia.

     Muñoz Molina, whose candidacy was supported by Luis Goytisolo, Gonzalo Torrente Ballester, and Ángel Martínez Municio, was both surprised and grateful following his election. While saying that he felt honored to be included among so many people from whom he had learned many things, Muñoz Molina added ironically that he did not expect to begin writing in Old Castilian. An accompanying article in El País points out that El invierno en Lisboa (1987) is Muñoz Molina's most commercially successful novel, with 140,000 copies having been sold. His latest novel, Ardor guerrero, published in March 1995, relates the author's experiences as a military recruit assigned to a post in the Basque country.

Donald W. Tucker         
Rhodes College         


Gonzalo Torrente Ballester opina. Resaltamos las siguientes ideas del maestro:

A. Cultura: -Un hombre con cultura es el que tiene una respuesta coherente -física, ideológica y metafísica- ante cualquier pregunta que le pueda plantear la realidad. Ese conjunto de respuestas, o de negaciones en el vacío, es la cultura.

B. Torrente, dramaturgo: -Fracasé como escritor de teatro... Lo único que me quedó de esa etapa fue aprender a dialogar, y lo utilicé bastante en la novela.

C. La novela en España: -Hay dos escuelas: la de Quevedo, que es de moralistas, y la de Cervantes que es de humoristas. Los españoles olvidan a Cervantes hasta fines del siglo XVIII; luego se redescubre a Cervantes porque los españoles empiezan a leer en el extranjero, sobre todo escritores ingleses, que son los que recogen la herencia cervantina. Y entonces por este camino, ... recoge la herencia de Cervantes Benito Pérez Galdós.

D. Diario quehacer de Torrente: -Estoy escribiendo una novela de mi pueblo [El Ferrol] después de la guerra civil.

E. Cervantes y Quevedo: -La imaginación de Cervantes es muy superior a la de Quevedo, aunque Quevedo tiene una riqueza de lenguaje superior a la de Cervantes. Por ejemplo (escribe Quevedo): me dice vuesa merced que está preñada y lo creo; que el ejercicio que vuesa merced trae, no es para menos. Eso nunca lo supo decir Cervantes.

     La conversación prosiguió, pero un poco distanciada de los temas literarios. G. Torrente Ballester sigue trabajando a ritmo normal para bien de las letras españolas, a pesar se sus ochenta y cuatro primaveras. (De una entrevista concedida al periodista Joaquín Vidal).

[Diario El País, 23 de enero de 1995]         
César Oro Howard University         


Abel Posse, al publicar La pasión según Eva:Evita se llevó a la tumba un inquietante secreto. Antes de ser llevada a la novela, [911] Evita ya era un personaje perfecto para ese género, dijo Abel Posse que hace catorce años comenzó a dar los primeros pasos que lo llevarían a escribir La pasión según Eva. La fascinación por una mujer que fue adorada por millones de argentinos -odiada por otros- hizo el resto.

[ABC, 24 de febrero de 1995]         

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El nuevo catálogo de inscripciones latinas obligará a rehacer la historia antigua de España. Es una obra digna de un Diderot, un D'Alambert o un Buffon. De hecho, la edición original la concibió y alumbró otro sabio con mayúscula, el historiador alemán Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903). El Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, en 27 volúmenes (seis metros de estantería), es una colección o major dicho la colección de todas las inscripciones latinas del mundo romano. Describe y documenta las inscripciones en cualquier soporte (piedra, bronce, hierro) y es, como la arqueología y las fuentes literarias, una herramienta esencial para el estudio de la historia antigua. Del volumen II, dedicado a Hispania y aparecido en 1869 con 6.000 inscripciones, ha comenzado a publicarse una nueva edición que recogerá 20,000 inscripciones y obligará, según los especialistas, a reformular la historia antigua de la Península.

[Diario El País, 21 de febrero de 1995]         

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Delibes: Diaro de un jubilado relata cómo hoy una generación se arrodilla ante el becerro de oro. Ya había pasado apenas un año desde que recibiera el premio Cervantes cuando el escritor vallisoletano Miguel Delibes presentó su nueva novela, titulada Diario de un jubilado. En ella, Delibes se reencuentra con Lorenzo, protagonista de otros dos libros. Lorenzo es ahora un jubilado, rico en tiempo libre pero esclavo de pasiones materialistas, al punto de simbolizar a toda una generación que olvidando su pasado se ha humillado ante el becerro de oro.

[ABC, 11 de febrero de 1995]         

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El Estado adquiere los textos inéditos de Lorca por casi cinco millones de pesetas. La sala Duran presentaba ayer un aspecto inusitado en sus subastas habituales de libros: cámaras, periodistas, bibliófilos y curiosos se acercaron hasta la casa de subastas madrileña para presenciar la venta de unos textos inéditos y autógrafos de Federico García Lorca. El Estado ejerció su derecho de tanteo y se llevó el gato al agua, dejando compuestas y sin manuscritos a la Fundación García Lorca y a la Casa-Museo del poeta.

[ABC, 21 de febrero de 1995]         

*

Lorca y Granada sellan la reconciliación con la apertura del Museo de la Huerta de San Vicente. Una casa está hecha, además de con piedra y madera, con canciones y silencio. (...) Quiero que la huerta tenga las ventajas de un libro: que pueda ser revisitada y que nos diga algo a todos, aunque a cada uno algo diferente, dijo el miércoles 10 Laura García Lorca de los Ríos momentos antes de que la Huerta de San Vicente, la casa de campo que sus abuelos compraron en 1925 a las afueras de Granada, fuera abierta como museo. Era el fin también de un largo desencuentro, demasiado largo y bastante desagradable, que produjo la impresión de que el rastro de Lorca se hubiera perdido en su ciudad.

     Laura García, directora de la Huerta, presentó la casa como un espacio que se transmuta en una extensión del cuerpo que, en el caso de un poeta, es también extensión de su imaginación. No en vano las paredes están impregnadas de la mejor literatura del siglo XX. Entre ellas, García Lorca escribió su Romancero gitano, el Diván del Tamarit y otras páginas célebres. Ahora, los manuscritos, cedidos por la familia, de ésta y otras obras relacionadas con la Huerta, se exhiben en la planta alta, junto a ilustraciones y dibujos como el Paseo de una avispa por mi cuarto (sic).

     El piano donde Lorca solía tocar llegó desde Madrid un día antes de la apertura. También vinieron dibujos como el titulado Deseo de las ciudades muertas, una pintura de Dalí y un cuadro regalo de Rafael Alberti en la Residencia de Estudiantes.

[Diario El País, 15 de mayo de 1995]         
James Willis Robb         

George Washington University, Emeritus         



Teresa Berganza ingresa en la Academia de Bellas Artes. La mezzosoprano Teresa Berganza ingresó el domingo 23 en la Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. El acto estaba previsto para el 5 de marzo, pero se suspendo por la muerte de un familiar cercano. La primera mujer que entra como miembro de número en los 250 años de la prestigiosa institución ocupará el lugar que dejó vacante el gran artista Nicanor Zabaleta. Alterando todos los protocolos existentes, Teresa Berganza dio un recital de canciones españolas con acompañamiento al piano de Juan Antonio Álvarez Parejo, antes de [912] leer su discurso de entrada sobre Mi universo musical.

[Diario El País, 11 de mayo de 1995]         

*

Mundo editorial: libros nuevos, reediciones recientes y traducciones. No están todos los que son... Pero considero que puede interesar a algún lector la siguiente lista de libros: Atxaga, Bernardo; Cielos, Ediciones B.- Bonilla, Juan. Partes de guerra, Pre-Textos. -Brines, Francisco. Escritos sobre poesía española contemporánea, Pre-Textos. -Bryce Echenique, Alfredo. No me esperen en abril, Anagrama. - Fernández de Castro, Javier. Tiempo de Beleño, Plaza y Janés. -García Lorca, Federico, Viaje a la luna, Pre-Textos. -Leguineche, Manuel. El precio del paraíso. De Mauthausen al Amazonas, Espasa Calpe. -López Aranguren, José Luis. Obras completas II: Ética. Edición de E Blázquez, Madrid. - Millás, Juan José. Tonto, muerto, bastardo e invisible, Alfaguara. -Muñoz Molina, Antonio. Ardor guerrero, Alfaguara. - Panero, Leopoldo. Por donde van las aguilas. Antología de Andrés Trapiello (Colección La Veleta), Granada. -Puértolas, Soledad. Si al atardecer llegara el mensajero, Anagrama. -Savater, Fernando. Misterios gozosos (antología de Héctor Subirats), Austral. -Umbral, Francisco. Las señoritas de Aviñón, Planeta. -Vázquez Díaz, René. La isla del Cundeamor, Alfaguara.

     No se han de pasar por alto las traducciones que incluyen títulos como: Amado, Jorge. Navegación de cabotaje, Alianza Editorial.- De Beauvoir, Simone. Cartas a Sartre, Lumen. -Junger, Ernest. Pasados los setenta 1 (1965-1970) (3 vols.), Tusquets. -Tarantino, Quentin. Pu1p fiction, Grijalbo-Mondadori. -Thomas, Hugh. Yo, Moctezuma, Emperador de los Incas, Planeta.

     Dentro del apartado de traducciones merece especial mención el libro Las contemplaciones de los misterios de Ibn'Arabí (Murcia, 1165-Damasco, 1240). Se trata de un clásico de la literatura mística que ha sido traducido por los profesores Pablo Beneito y Suad Hakim, ambos de la universidad de El Líbano y publicado por la editora regional de Murcia.

*

Un nuevo título para añadir a las obras completas de Valle-Inclán. La editorial Pre-Textos ha reunido conferencias, entrevistas, cartas, meditaciones, etc. de don Ramón que se agregarán como un nuevo libro a la obra completa del creador del Esperpento.

[ABC Cultural, 3 de septiembre de 1994]         

*

Tres tristes tigres reeditado. Juan Goytisolo nos recuerda en la sección de libros que Tres tristes tigres (Seix Barral, 1994) de G. Cabrera Infante, no sólo no ha perdido actualidad sino que, como el vino añejo, ha mejorado con el tiempo. Goytisolo dice de la nueva edición: Lo que más me ha seducido de nuevo es su 'galería de voces': ese texto multiforme en el que léxico, ritmo y entonación desempeñan un papel primordial. Más adelante añade Goytisolo: TTT es así un canto de amor embebido de melancolía incurable al universo cubierto de lava y cenizas del fuego purificador de la revolución. Y continúa: TTT o la ciudad alegre y confiada en vísperas del apocalipsis: sus últimas noches pompeyanas. Estamos ante un gran autor y un gran libro.

[Diario El País, 6 de febrero de 1995]         

*

Alfredo Conde, última entrega. Se titula Siempre me matan (Ir indo), que sale a la luz con buena estrella, puesto que ya tiene asegurada su traducción al castellano y al italiano. Conde es un autor prolífero bien conocido por obras como El Griffón (Alfaguara), Memoria de Noa (Alfaguara) y otros títulos.

*

Alvaro Pombo. Telepena de Celia Cecilia Villalobo (Anagrama). De esta novela I. Echevarría dice en El País que en el mismo nombre de Cecilia apunta una clave del relato. Y es que, de igual modo que el nombre de Cecilia contiene aliterativamente el de Celia, así también la mujer así llamada contiene una personalidad escondida cuyo desvelamiento constituye de hecho el asunto principal de esta novela.

[Diario El País, 6 de febrero de 1995]         

*

Diaro de un jubilado de Delibes (Destino, 1995). El gran autor castellano vuelve al ruedo literario con este libro en el que desempolva uno de sus personajes más queridos: Lorenzo. Dicen que ...Delibes se miró en el espejo, en esa máscara que llevaba Lorenzo, y se encontró no sus arrugas, las naturales, las del envejecer en provincias, sino con las de Lorenzo. Delibes, Premio Cervantes 1994, había pensado en el retiro para escribir sus memorias. Pero los 'diablillos de la inspiración' no lo han dejado tranquilo para bien de nuestras letras, y los lectores quedamos esperando sus futuras entregas, que vendrán a buen seguro.

[Diario El País, 6 de febrero de 1995]         

*

Ignacio Aldecoa reeditado. En edición preparada por Josefina Aldecoa, acaba de salir Cuentos [913] completos (Alfaguara, nueva edición. 1995). Esta edición definitiva contiene setenta y nueve cuentos, once de ellos inéditos. Para la editora, lo más importante de esta edición es que en la lectura cronológica de los cuentos están condensados veinte años de historia España.

[Diario El País, 20 de marzo de 1995]         

*



NEWS OF IBEROAMERICA

Inéditos de Julio Cortázar. Varios libros inéditos del fallecido escritor argentino se darán a conocer al mismo tiempo que se realiza la reedición de toda su obra que prepara la editorial Alfaguara. Las obras que serán publicadas póstumamente son: La otra orilla (1946), Teoría del túnel (1947), Divertimento (1949), El examen (1950), Diario de Andrés Fava (1950) e Imagen de John Keats (1950-51) serán publicadas póstumamente. La otra orilla contiene elementos conocidos de la temática de Cortázar -lo real, los deslizamientos en el espacio y en el tiempo, el desdoblamiento de la realidad. En Teoría del túnel el escritor analiza las tendencias que considera más importantes en la literatura de su época, el surrealismo y el existencialismo. Divertimento y El examen no fueron publicados en su momento por falta de un editor, después de que una prestigiosa empresa editorial rechazó el manuscrito.

[La Nación, 3 de julio de 1995]         



Un manuscrito de Julio Cortázar. Se acaba de publicar Diario de Andrés Faba del gran narrador argentino (Alfaguara 1995). Ana María González, citando a García Márquez, dice Los ídolos infunden respeto, admiración, cariño y, por supuesto, grandes envidias. Cortázar inspiraba todos estos sentimientos como muy pocos escritores, pero inspiraba además otro menos frecuente: la devoción. Fue, tal vez sin proponérselo, el argentino que se hizo querer por todo el mundo. Con veinte títulos Alfaguara concluye la publicación de la obra completa de Julio Cortázar.

[Diario ElPaís, 20 de marzo de 1995]         

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Gabriel García Márquez: tres veces noticia. Está escribiendo un nuevo libro que se titulará Noticias de un secuestro. El tema, celosamente guardado por el autor, se basa en un hecho ocurrido en su Colombia natal. Habrá que esperar un poco para que llegue a las librerías, pues es sabido que el autor de Cien años de soledad rehace varias veces sus manuscritos antes de la redacción definitiva.

     Grijalbo-Mondadori inicia la publicación de una colección popular con una obra de teatro de García Márquez titulada Diatriba de amor contra un hombre sentado. La obra original se presentó en La Habana y en Buenos Aires a finales de la década de los '80; pero en 1994, en una versión revisada por el autor, se estrenó en el IV Festival de Teatro Iberoamericano de Bogotá.

     Según la agencia EFE, El coronel no tiene quien le escriba va a adaptarse a cine. Ignacio López Tarso será el protagonista bajo la dirección de Arturo Ripstein, ambos mexicanos.

[Diario El País, 23 de enero de 1995]         
César Oro         
Howard University         


Cuadragésimo Aniversario de la Fundación del Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña. En una ceremonia en el Antiguo Casino de Puerto Rico se reunió el pasado 21 de junio un numeroso público para celebrar los cuarenta años de labores culturales llevadas a cabo por esta institución. Se le rindió homenaje especial a algunos de los más destacados miembros de esta organización por su largo y destacado servicio en la conservación y promoción de la cultura puertorriqueña. Fue reconocido el Dr. Ricardo Alegría, fundador y primer director ejecutivo del ICP, por sus incansables labores de antropólogo, arqueólogo, historiador y autor que impulsó y realizó muchas restauraciones importantes en el Viejo San Juan. Fue honrado el profesor Enrique A. Laguerre, novelista por excelencia de Puerto Rico, cuyas obras han ido siguiendo la trayectoria de la isla durante gran parte del siglo, por su singular labor creativa y periodística y por su servicio como miembro de la Junta de Directores del ICP durante cuarenta años consecutivos. También fueron reconocidos Piri Fernández de Lewis, dramaturga, ensayista, actriz, directora de teatro; Lorenzo Homar, maestro del grabado; Francisco Arriví, dramaturgo e impulsor de las artes teatrales y del Centro de Bellas Artes; y, en acto póstumo, al historiador Arturo Morales Carrión, uno de los gestores de la idea que dio origen al instituto y Director Ejecutivo de la Fundación Puertorriqueña de las Humanidades. En la actividad, amenizada por un espectáculo de bailes de bomba por el grupo Cepeda, se leyó una proclama oficial declarando el año del Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña.

     En el programa de la actividad se lee el siguiente resumen de los logros del Instituto: Desde su génesis, el Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña [914] definió el concepto cultural nacional y se ocupó de cultivar, cuidar y honrar nuestros valores en las ramas del arte, la historia, las artes populares, la arquitectura, la música, la arqueología, la danza, el teatro y las artes plásticas. Rescató valiosos documentos y edificios multicentenarios en las zonas históricas que hoy conservan el hálito de la presencia de nuestros antepasados.



Vargas Llosa reclama la ficción como salvavidas al recibir el Cervantes. La ficción es testimonio y fuente de inconformidad, un desacato del mundo tal como es y algo imprescindible para soportar mejor la historia que se vive; un salvavidas, en suma, para poder vivir. Estas son algunas de las ideas que expuso el lunes 24 el escritor hispanoperuano Mario Vargas Llosa, de 59 años, en el discurso que pronunció tras recoger el Premio Cervantes 1994 de manos del rey Juan Carlos en la Universidad de Alcalá de Henares. Considerado como el Nobel de las letras españolas, el Cervantes tiene una dotación de 15 millones de pesetas (algo más de 200.000 dólares). Mario Vargas Llosa, colaborador de El País, es el vigésimo escritor que recibe este galardón. Autor de una treintena de libros, anunció que las preocupaciones políticas seguirán estando presentes en su obra.

[Diario El País, 10 de mayo de 1995]         

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Todo en América Latina se derrumba, menos la literatura. Cuando hay una crisis tan generalizada como la de México hoy, o como la de América Latina en general, lo único que queda en pie es lo que hemos hecho los latinoamericanos en el aspecto cultural. Lo demás se derrumba con una enorme facilidad, porque la cultura es auténtica mientras que la economía y la política que hemos hecho son falsas. De forma tan elocuente, el novelista mexicano Carlos Fuentes (1928), premio Príncipe de Asturias 1994, expresaba así el jueves 27 de abril, en Oviedo, la magnitud y trascendencia de las vicisitudes que vive su país y la grave quiebra del sistema vigente en México desde los años veinte.

[Diario El País, 8 de mayo de 1995]         
James Willis Robb         
George Washington University, Emeritus         


PRIZES

Premio Rómulo Gallegos. El 26 de julio fue dado a conocer el nombre del ganador del concurso de este año entre doce finalistas de ocho países hispanohablantes, entre ellos Adolfo Bioy Casares y Álvaro Mutis. Javier Marías, de 43 años, se llevó el premio por su novela Mañana en la batalla piensa en mí. Es el primer autor español galardonado con el prestigioso premio literario internacional, desde que fue instaurado en 1967 en honor del novelista venezolano. Desde su convocatoria para esta novena edición, en octubre de 1994 hasta el cierre de recepción de trabajos en febrero pasado, se presentaron 146 obras. El jurado del premio está compuesto por la mexicana Elena Poniatowska, el español Luis Goytisolo, el argentino Mempo Giardinelli, ganador del concurso de 1993, el peruano Julio Ortega y el venezolano Antonio López Ortega.

     Expresó Marías especial satisfacción por el premio porque la novela, cuyo título procede de una obra de Shakespeare, aunque en general tuvo buenas críticas, fue recibida con una cierta desconfianza porque venía después de Corazón tan blanco, que había sido un éxito. Señaló que el tema principal de la novela premiada es el engaño, que es nuestra condición natural y que no debería dolernos tanto, porque todos somos víctimas y agentes del engaño. Hijo del filósofo Julián Marías, Javier Marías es autor de diez novelas, entre ellas El hombre sentimental (1986, Premio Herralde de Novela), Todas las almas (1989), Corazón tan blanco (1992, Premio de la Crítica). Escribe también artículos polémicos; una recopilación de sus artículos acaba de salir bajo el título Vida de fantasma (El País-Aguilar). Marías prepara actualmente una narración, que no sería de ficción puesto que el narrador soy yo y cuento cosas que han ocurrido realmente, aunque tampoco son unas memorias. Es más bien una novela que no es ficción, aunque este concepto pueda parecer paradójico.

[El Nuevo Día (Puerto Rico), 27 de julio de 1995]         



Fernández de la Mora gana el premio Espejo de España con sus Memorias españolas. El diplomático y ex ministro Gonzalo Fernández de la Mora, bajo el pseudónimo de Adán, fue galardonado anoche con la XXI edición del premio Espejo de España de Ensayo, por su obra Memorias españolas, un repaso desde su óptica y vivencias personales, sin resentimientos ni venganzas, a la España de este siglo. Resultó finalista del premio, que está dotado con cuatro millones de pesetas, Carlos Iglesias, con su obra Después de la Monarquía.

[ABC, 16 de febrero de 1995]         

[915]

Premios de la crítica, 1994. Cada año se otorgan dos premios -narrativa y verso- en cuatro lenguas de España: castellano, catalán, gallego y vasco. Los galardones se repartieron este año como sigue: en lengua castellana para el narrador Manuel Vázquez Montalván por El estrangulador y para el poeta. Antonio Hernández por Sagrada Forma. En catalán para la narradora María Mercé Marcal por La passió seguns Renée Vivien y para el poeta Miquel Martí por Un hivern placid. En gallego para el narrador Xurxo Borrazás por Criminal y para el poeta Xosé Méndez Ferrín por Estirpe. Y en vasco para el escritor Inazio Mujika Iraola por Hautsaren Kronica y para el poeta Juan Cruz Igerabide por Sarean Leiho.

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Premio Anagrama. Ernesto Javier Echeverría (Pamplona, 1948), ha resultado ganador del premio Anagrama de ensayo por Cosmopolitas domésticos. El premio recayó sobre Echeverría porque se trataba de una obra llena de imaginación que se inscribe en el marco de los pensadores que reflexionan sobre lo contemporáneo. El mismo Echeverría, según Xavier Moret, dice que lo que está apareciendo es una forma de cosmopolitismo moderno, un cosmopolita que se hace en casa a través de los avances tecnológicos.

[Diario El País, 2 de marzo de 1995]         

César Oro         

Howard University         



NEWS OF THE LUSOPHONE WORLD

The Curse of the Grandfather. Victor Perera was only five years old when his schoolmates said he had a tail and horns, accused him of killing Christ and stripped him naked. That same year, Chata, his Mayan nanny, was knifed to death by a jealous lover and he was circumcised for the second time, by a rabbi summoned from Turkey, because the first one had been botched by a Gentile doctor.

     These are just three of the events of 1939 that would mark Perera forever, events the writer attributes to a family curse he did not begin to fully explore until his fifties.

     In The Cross and the Pear Tree, he traces the Perera family as far back as 14th-century Spain, to Toledo, then moves forward, recounting the history of the Inquisition and the expulsion of Sephardic Jews. He follows the peregrinations of several branches of the Perera clan to Portugal, Amsterdam, France, Turkey and Israel, before concluding in Guatemala, where his own parents emigrated from Jerusalem after the First World War.

     At the heart of his narrative is a document written in Hebrew by his great-grandfather, Rabbi Yitzhak Moshe Perera of Jerusalem, in which the religious elder exhorts his progeny never to leave the Holy Land without his consent, from now to eternity. No Perera was to leave Palestine for longer than six months, and only then to go abroad on a religious mission. Perera's grandfather, Aharon Haim Perera, broke the covenant when he traveled to Bukhara and Egypt. Then, wishing to escape the Turkish draft during World War I, Perera's father voyaged to the New World.

     Perera only learned the true nature of his great-grandfather's commandment in 1992, when an Israeli specialist translated a three-letter Hebrew word in the center of the document as Nashas, an acronym that represented three degrees of excommunication.

     The fifth event was Perera's (Perera means pear orchard in Portuguese) first encounter with native Mayas. At a national fair given in honor of Guatemala's president, he saw the Mayas, with their long hair and white tunics, kidnapped from Mexico and on exhibit behind a barbed-wire fence. I was facing the first real existential crisis of my life , Perera recalled. Why are these people being punished? Why are they so beautiful? Are they men or women? Why are they behind this fence?

     More than 30 years later, Perera would spend time with the community of Mayas in Chiapas, an experience he wrote about in The Last Lords of Palenque, authored with Robert D. Bruce. I found a connection said Perera between the wisdom of the Lacandon elder, Chan Kin, and the wisdom of the Kabala . The aphorism all living things are tied together; when a mighty tree is felled in the forest, a star falls from the sky is completely within the Kabalistic tradition.

     The Inquisition brought an end to Jewish civilization in Spain, and with it the persecution of impure race, in which Jews were submitted to autos de-fe (trials of heretics that led to burning at the stake, torture and imprisonment), later expanded to the prosecution of impure ideas. Spain's religious-racial crusade lasted an incredible 340 years and continued even in the Americas, setting the tone for the conquering of Native Americans.

     In The Cross and the Pear Tree, Perea describes how the conversos continued to practice Judaism in secret, and how Sephardim who were [916] expelled from Spain began wandering again in the Diaspora, taking with them their own language, Ladino, which is a mixture of Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and other influences added in exile. In addition, Perea quotes sources that explain how Hebrew influences Castilian Spanish. According to one scholar the honorific don, as in Don Juan, derives from the Hebrew Adon, meaning sire or lord. Perera also points out the numerous Spanish towns had Hebrew names: Barcelona, for instance, may derive from Bar-Shelanu, meaning our country in Hebrew.

     There's a very clear answer, Perera said. The cultural memory of the Sephardim after the Expulsion is a memory of Diaspora, and each of those languages... is a reflection of that state of diaspora: state of exile, state of expatriation, the state of survival. When I was seven, I discovered comic books, and I discovered Hollywood... I realized that that sense of foreignness that I had, being a Jew from the Middle East in Guatemala, could somehow not be healed exactly, but ameliorated by learning a third language, English... In my innermost heart, I decided that to me the land of English was the Promised Land, and that that's where I had to go.

     Today, Perera considers his multicultural experiences an integral part of his Sephardic inheritance: To be a wandering Jew teaches you tolerance of other cultures, so that you go from exile to universalism.

     With the completion of The Cross and the Pear Tree, Perera feels the burden of the family curse has been lifted, and that he has come full circle as a writer.

[Washington Post, May 31, 1995]         
James Willis Robb         
George Washington University, Emeritus         


NECROLOGY

Muere la pintora gallega Maruja Mallo, musa y creadora del surrealismo. Ha fallecido la pintora Maruja Mallo, una de las principales exponentes del surrealismo español. La pintora vivía en una residencia de ancianos de Madrid desde que se rompió la cadera, hace varios años.

[ABC, 7 de febrero de 1995]        

*

Alfonso Grosso (1928-1995). En política comenzó en el PCE y evolucionó hasta ser uno de los fundadores del partido socialista andaluz. En América escribió Inés just coming (1968). En 1969 recibió el premio de la crítica por Guarnición de silla. En 1972 obtuvo una beca de la Fundación Juan March para escribir Florido Mayo que le valió el premio Alfaguara. Otro libro suyo: La buena suerte (1976).

[ABC, 7 de febrero de 1995]        
César Oro        
Howard University        


NOTA

El último OP ED. Esta viene como nota de gratitud a todos los colegas que han colaborado en esta columna sobre el transcurso del plazo de mi responsabilidad como organizador de los informes periodísticos y culturales que me hayan mandado. Como ella ha caducado, les doy las mil y una gracias con un gran abrazo, pero le mando uno especial y destacado a James Robb cuyo apoyo y colaboración han sido sobre los años imprescindibles.

T. Edward Harvey         
Brigham Young University-Hawaii Campus        

[917]



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Una página del pasado / Uma página do passado:

Vol. 4 (1921), 194. The Term Latin America Repudiated by the Second Spanish-American Congress of History and Geography







THE TERM LATIN AMERICA REPUDIATED BY THE SECOND SPANISH-AMERICAN CONGRESS OF HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY



     During the first week of May of the current year there met in the city of Sevilla, Spain, the Segundo Congreso de Historia y Geografía Hispanoamericanas. This institution is perhaps the most important spiritual and intellectual bond that unites the Spanish-speaking nations of the world. Among the statutes and recommendations unanimously adopted by the Congress this year we find the following which repudiates the use of the term Latin America and its derivatives and officially declares Spanish America, Hispano America, and their congeneric terms to be the only ones that may be property used:



15.

     Considerando impropia la denominación de América latina aplicada a los países descubiertos y colonizados por españoles, el Congreso declara que la única apropiada es la de América Española o Repúblicas hispanoamericanas.



To those of us who have been combating the use of the improper term Latin America when applied to the countries discovered and colonized by Spain the above decision of the Second Spanish-American Congress of History and Geography gives deep satisfaction. We congratulate especially our good friend and hispanist Don Juan D. Cebrián who has been the most staunch defender of the proper and just terminology just adopted by the Congress.



A. M. E.         

[Aurelio M. Espinosa, Editor of Hispania, 1918-1926]         

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