Selecciona una palabra y presiona la tecla d para obtener su definición.
Anterior Indice Siguiente

––––––––   444   ––––––––




The President's Corner

Ruth L. Bennett

One measure of a good educator is his or her participation in activities outside the classroom. Attending professional meetings, for example, is a means of improving one's teaching, because at the sessions we learn about ideas and techniques to apply to our own classes. Exhibits at conferences make us aware of the latest materials available. Interaction with colleagues on the same teaching level as ours can give us solutions to our pedagogical and administrative problems. When these colleagues are from teaching levels other than our own, we benefit in another way -we are promoting articulation. AATSP chapter meetings are a good way of coming together with colleagues from the various levels. By knowing what is being taught at schools above and below ours, we are taking a step towards making our curriculum fit into a logical sequence. Such a sequence makes the most of a student's years of language study.

To articulate best with our feeder schools and with those above the level of our own, we need to work more closely than is generally the case. This can be done effectively in local settings. Any group of schools where foreign languages are taught -elementary, middle and high schools, community and four-year colleges, and universities- can establish a council or consortium. It could fulfill several purposes, the general one being to improve the teaching on all levels. By sending representatives to the council's meetings, all the schools involved will learn what is being taught at the various levels, and how it is implemented. Speakers can be invited to council meetings to deal with topics of common interest, such as:

  • foreign language requirements
  • placement of students entering with previous foreign language experience
  • achieving oral proficiency
  • testing oral proficiency
  • the teaching of literature and of other types of reading material
  • writing activities for all levels and all abilities
  • adapting methods from one level to another, i.e., from secondary to college and vice versa
  • incorporating career education into programs on all levels.

The composition of a council or consortium can vary according to the geographical situation. In a city, it is comparatively simple for representatives to meet in a central location, but numbers might be a problem. The solution is, in the case of pre-university institutions, to invite a delegate from each school district, rather than from each school. In smaller towns, it might be feasible to have a representative of every institution teaching foreign languages, from FLES* (Foreign Language in the Elementary School, whether an immersion program or, like the upper level schools, one subject among many) through university. Where rural areas are involved, there is an alternative solution -an interactive telecommunications system, also known as distance learning. This comparatively recent technology is being used to conduct in-service courses for teachers as well as classes for students where either a qualified teacher is not available or where there are too few students in a school to form a section. The initial costs, mainly for the computers, television monitors, and microphones, are often paid for by federal, state, county or local grants.

The number of meetings per year will, of necessity, vary greatly from one program to another. Monthly sessions would be ideal, but some aims can be achieved even with two meetings annually. More important is the proper dissemination of the information that has been exchanged at the sessions. Both oral and written reports will be helpful in instituting methods learned at the conferences. The written report can be duplicated by each school for its own faculty and an oral report given at a departmental meeting, so that faculty members have the opportunity to ask questions and discuss the suggested techniques.

An ancillary benefit of a consortium is that participants will learn about each representative's strengths and each school's resources. This information is useful when choosing speakers for conferences, instructors and sites for immersion programs, host schools and directors for contests, adjunct faculty, and cooperating teachers to accept and train student teachers.

Articulation does not require that all the schools on each level of a system teach the same material in the same way. Its aim is for all the levels to mesh so that there are no gaps or overlapping from one curriculum to another. A council or consortium of schools makes its members aware of what is being taught at each institution, how it is presented, and what the foreign language requirements are on each level, so that adjustments can be made, where necessary and feasible, to result in the most effective learning situation possible. It is a goal we should all be able to meet.

––––––––   445   ––––––––


Professional News

Richard D. Woods131


Improving Elementary School Foreign Language Teacher Education

A Project funded by the U. S. Dept. of Education, Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), and conducted by the Center for Applied Linguistics in collaboration with the North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction will attempt to remedy the problem of a need for qualified foreign language teachers in elementary school.

This project will improve the training of elementary school foreign language teachers at institutions of higher education. A creative training model for teacher educators will be implemented based on the successes of current elementary school foreign language teachers. This training will be offered to teacher educators representing public and private universities in all eight educational regions of North Carolina. The shortage of teachers is more pressing in North Carolina than in any other state be cause of a new law that states that by 1993, all public school students in kindergarten and elementary school in North Carolina will be required to study a foreign language. The teacher educators will participate in the following activities: 1) an intensive seminar on FLES methodology, 2) direct observations of local FLES classes, 3) co-teaching with FLES teachers, and 4) collaboration with experienced FLES teachers in the development of a teacher education curriculum. These teacher educators will then be responsible for incorporating the new material and methodologies into their universities' curricula and providing FLES instruction to undergraduate foreign language students preparing to become teachers.

As part of the goal of wider dissemination of FLES teacher training models, this program, after revision, will be replicated with a second group of North Carolina institutions. In addition, through workshops at national conferences, the National Network for Early Language Learning, and other dissemination networks such as the ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, the teacher education curriculum and training model will be made available to other districts and states interested in increasing and improving their elementary school foreign language programs. Info: Nancy C. Rhodes, Project Director, Center for Applied Linguistics, 1118 22nd St. NW Washington, DC 20037; (212) 429-9292.

Modern Language journal 1990

Recent Publications

Traveling Exhibit on Languages

The MLA is developing a traveling exhibit about languages other than English in the United States. To promote recognition of the social importance of language-education programs, and extend public awareness and understanding of the heritage and current multiplicity of languages and their study in this country.

The exhibit will appeal to young people aged ten to seventeen, as well as to teenage groups and will be displayed in museums and schools across the country. It will show that American English has been greatly influenced by other languages; that learning foreign languages has been bound up with the history of our nation since its beginning, that many famous Americans can attribute a measure of their success to their command of languages other than English; that the multilingualism of the United States has always been problematic as well as enriching; and that new methodologies, many involving advanced technology, are now used in foreign language instruction.

The exhibit has been tentatively organized into five chronological sections: 1492, 1776, 1865, 1920, and 1992. Early sections will point to the language study and learning that took place as European and Native American cultures came together; the importance that the founders of the United States placed on language study; the variety of native, African, and immigrant languages, and the response and fate of these languages in the fact of repression and acculturation; the influence of these languages on American English; and the developing concepts and styles of language learning and teaching. Later sections will point to linguistic traces of settlement patterns and current areas of partial and extended multilingualism, to efforts in language maintenance and study, and to the international cooperation that language study makes possible today. The 1992 section will emphasize the ability of computers, videos, and laser disks to convey

––––––––   446   ––––––––

cultural information and simulations, and there will be opportunities for children to use the equipment at varying levels of difficulty.

As the exhibit travels around the country, special events will be organized to coincide with its appearance. Lectures and study kits will be made available to schools, and local groups will be encouraged to supplement that exhibit with displays that will reflect their communities. The exhibit will, however, have its own geographical sections, focusing on the cities of New York, New Orleans, San Antonio, Los Angeles, Chicago, and Charleston (SC), as well as on the areas of Michigan, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania. An interactive map of the United States will electronically depict patterns of linguistic migration, settlement, and influence.

MLA Newsletter, Winter 1989

Symposium on Gabriela Mistral

Commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of Gabriela Mistral, the Chilean poet and the first Latin American to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature (1945), the University of Pennsylvania sponsored a symposium on November 10-11, 1989.

Participants and their topics included: Peter G. Earle, «Gabriela Mistral en su tiempo y el nuestro»; Jamete Giordano, «La poesía de Gabriela Mistral: 61, ella, ellos, ellas»; Gabriela Mora, «La prosa política de Gabriela Mistral»; Hilda Rojas, «Otra lectura de la niñez en Gabriela Mistral»; Estrella Busto Ogden, «Gonzalo Rojas, mistraliano»; José Miguel Oviedo, «Ludwig Zeller y el surrealismo»; René de Costa, «Las poetas y sus lectores: de la Mistral a lo actual»; and Gonzalo Rojas, «Mi diálogo con Gabriela Mistral».

HACU: The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities

Founded in May, 1986, in San Antonio, Texas, HACU is a national organization dedicated to bringing together member colleges and universities with potential resource providers in order to improve post-secondary educational opportunities for Hispanic students. Institutions of higher education eligible for HACU membership are regionally accredited, non-profit colleges and universities where Hispanic students constitute a minimum of 25 percent of the total enrollment. The institutions must also express their commitment to the Association's mission and to achieving the goals and objectives established by the membership.

The Chairperson of HACU, Gilbert Sánchez, President of New Mexico Highlands University, Las Vegas, NM, indicates that there are three categories of membership in HACU: Institutional -for colleges and universities that meet the enrollment requirements; Associate -for institutions of higher education that have strong commitment to improving educational opportunities for Hispanics, although they may not meet the enrollment requirements; and Business -for individuals and corporations.

The membership is roughly comprised of: 47 two-year colleges and 31 four-year colleges. Texas, California, New Mexico, New York and Florida are the top five states in terms of number of members. There are 31 institutions where Hispanic enrollment is 45 percent or greater. HACU holds Annual Meetings. Info: Pamela Salazar, HACU, 411 S. W. 24th Street, San Antonio, TX 78207-4617.

La Red/The Net, Fall 1989, Vol. 2: 3


On Structuring Introductory Courses

Before suggesting a syllabus for an introduction to translation, I hasten to clarify that the course I will describe is not part of the core language sequence. Those entering the course are, minimally, advanced undergraduate students who have already demonstrated a high level of competency in both Spanish and English. Our translation program is pre-professional training; students taking one or both semesters of the introductory course will learn the fundamental principles of translation, the standards of performance that are expected in the field, and whether or not they personally have the talent or desire to continue132.

In the first class, students are asked to fill out the usual questionnaire: name/address/college/ class/major, etc. They are then asked to translate the questionnaire itself. The first stumbling block, of course, is «name». What would be the equivalent in a Spanish-speaking country? Other items on the questionnaire also pose problems of cultural difference. The student impression that the course will not be a snap is reinforced by the syllabus: our courses meet twice a week and there are written homework assignments for every class meeting except the three with in-class translation examinations. Our attrition rate the first week is understandably high. Students who remain, whether or not they intend to become translators, tend to give the course strongly favorable evaluations for the interest of the subject matter and the amount that they learned.

I have made the preceding point for two reasons. In traditional departments of language and literature, translation courses are often viewed as inferior to our basic mission and therefore some thing that will appeal to our less able students and can be taught by our least productive scholars. In fact, if translation is handled correctly, these courses will be among the most challenging and demanding for both students and faculty.

They can also be frustrating. The instructor should evaluate each written assignment both as a translation of the source text and as a text in the target language. Even a reasonably accurate translation in terms of content and lexicon may be covered

––––––––   447   ––––––––

with red marks because of stylistic errors or failure to capture the tone of the original133. Several of the suggestions that follow are designed to alleviate that inevitable sense of frustration.

An ideal introductory translation course will be structured progressively. James K. Child has out lined four levels of language to keep in mind in selecting texts: (1) orientational, (2) instructive, (3) evaluative, and (4) projective. Levels 1 and 2 impart information [e. g., signs, news items], while 3 and 4 [e. g., editorials, literature] are individuated and require the translator to read between or beyond the lines. In Peter Newmark's terms, the former categories will require a communicative approach to translation while the latter will move towards semantic translation. The early emphasis in the course on communicative translation at Level 1 helps break the student away from the pitfall of word-for-word translation. What is the equivalent for «Pasen peatones?» Even the most obstinate student will probably not argue in favor of literal translation here!

Progressive difficulty may also be established by the length of texts. Our daily assignments will range from 150 to 250 words the first semester. The short passages allow us time in class to review problems raised in the previous assignment, analyze together the day's assignment and glance at the next one. We also try to include extra items of interest (e. g., horrible examples of faulty translation or mind-boggling expressions); students often bring these in spontaneously.

Also relevant to planning the course are Albrecht Neubert's observations on «Text-bound Translation Teaching». He points out that one does not translate Language A to Language B but rather text-type A to text-type B. For example, to translate a patent application, one must know what the prototypical patent application is like in the target language. At the introductory level, this concept suggests comparing want ads or business letters from the two languages. In the case of Spanish, it may also involve looking at prototypical texts from several different Spanish-speaking countries. At Rutgers, we combine English-Spanish and Spanish English translation in the same course for two reasons: our students are evently divided between native speakers of each language, and our graduates will likely be called upon to translate in both directions. We therefore structure the course with pairs of parallel texts, but the concept can be incorporated even when students are translating only into their dominant language.

Professional translators are often called upon to prepare abstracts of articles in the source language. An introductory course may profitably include some precis-writing as an exercise in close reading of a complete text. We ask beginning students to prepare a short abstract, in their own words, and then translate it. In class we agree on the main ideas that should have been included and critique a sample abstract. We take advantage of the knowledge gained on language and style of the particular passage by assigning a segment for the next translation exercise.

Today many professional translators use word processors. To the extent possible, we therefore require students to word process their written assignments. Word processing facilitates editing, and we encourage this aspect by incorporating revised translations into the syllabus.

While it is possible to have individual students put their solutions on the board for group comment, xeroxed copies of a sample solution are much easier to read and handle134. Moreover, the instructor may receive the translation before class and have time to evaluate it thoroughly before guiding the group analysis. We do, however, use the board for collective solutions. Starting in mid semester, for every second or third assignment we divide the class in groups of three or four. Each group is asked to discuss their respective solutions for a particular segment and then put their «ideal» answer on the board. The entire class can then react to the collective ideal solution.

What all of the above leads to is a syllabus like this for the first fourteen-week course:

Weeks 1-4. Introduction to principles (and pit falls) of translation. Practice in level 1 and level 2 texts, including one or two precis-writing assignments. One revised translation, due the class before the first in-class translation. First examination text, chosen for relationship to previous class work.

Weeks 5-9. Texts on a variety of topics, chosen from levels 2 and 3. Introduction of group work in class. Continued use of precis-writing and revision assignment. In-class translation on topic previously covered.

Weeks 10-13. Texts at levels 3 and 4, with introduction to literary translation (essay and narrative). Continued group work in class and revised translation as final assignment before in-class test. (At this level of difficulty, the examination always allows student to translate into the dominant language).

Final week. Review of last in-class test and additional assignments chosen for «fun»: i. e., humorous passages or examples of highly metaphorical or colloquial language.

The second semester starts at a higher level of difficulty than the first did and emphasizes kinds of non-literary language that students may expect to confront in their professional work (commercial and legal, in our case). Again we include a component of literary translation at the end of the semester, perhaps adding drama to the other genres.

In class students are encouraged to correct their own translations, but the copies they turn in will reflect their original work (typed double spaced) and the penciled revisions. In general, we do not accept late work, but in the final average we drop the bottom four grades from the 24 written

––––––––   448   ––––––––

assignments. For in-class translation tests, following procedures for the American Translator Association examinations, students are allowed to bring all the dictionaries they wish. In grading, however, we do not adhere to the ATA pass/fail norm: more than one major error or a combination of one major error and seven or so minor ones is a failure. Students are made aware of these standards and are informed that they must reach them to make an A in the course135.

Perhaps potential students and faculty should also be warned that translation is addictive. It is by far the most difficult and demanding course I have taught, but it is also the one that is hardest to put out of one's mind. I am still working on last semester's puzzler: «Divers comb Boston Harbor for artifacts from Tea Party»136.

Works Cited

Child, James K. «Language Proficiency and Translation», Translation Excellence: Assessment, Achievement, Maintenance. Ed. Marilyn Gaddis Rose. American Translators Association Series 1. Binghamton, NY University Center at Binghamton (SUNY), 1987.

Neubert, Albrecht. «Text-bound Translation Teaching». Die Theorie der Übersetzungs und Dolmetschdidaktik / Translation Theory and Its Implementation in the Teaching of Translating and Interpreting. Ed. Wolfram Wilss and Gisela Thome. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 1984.

Newmark, Peter. Approaches to Translation. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press, 1981.

Vázquez-Ayora, Gerardo. Introducción a la traductología. Curso básico de traducción. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 1977.

Phillis Zatlin

Rutgers, The State University

Deportation Proceedings to be Translated

Immigrant rights advocates in Los Angeles applauded a federal district judge's Nov. 6 ruling that all portions of U. S. Immigration and Naturalization Service deportation proceedings be translated into the defendants' language.

The ruling stemmed from a complaint filed last year by the Mexican American Legal Defense and Educational Fund, the Legal Aid Foundation and others on behalf of El Rescate Legal Services. Attorneys charged that the plaintiffs' Fifth Amendment rights to due process were being violated because only the litigants' discourse with the judge was required by law to be translated. Before U. S. District Judge William Gray's ruling, attorney objections, arguments, statements made by witnesses and some statements by the judges, were not translated for non-English-speaking litigants.

Francisco García, national director of MALDEF's immigrants' rights program, said he was «very pleased» with Gray's ruling and that «it will have a tremendous impact on the largest immigration court in the country». The ruling will take effect immediately in Los Angeles, San Diego and El Centro. The Justice Department has 30 days in which to file an appeal.

Charles Wheeler, director of the National Center for Immigrants' Rights, called Judge Gray's decision a «kick in the tail» for the INS. He said it may very well have an impact on proceedings nationwide.

Hispanic Link. Weekly Report

November 20, 1989

Awards and Honors

Deanna Hammond President of the American Translators Association

Deanna Hammond, head of the Language Service Section of the Library of Congress, after serving for two years as President-Elect of the American Translators Association and organizing two annual conferences, is the current president.

Since 1977 she has held her present position in the Library of Congress and is responsible for the foreign language translation this section provides the U. S. Congress: editing all translations, translating most of the Spanish requests as well as arranging outside contracts for this work, and reviewing and ordering glossaries. In 1988 Hammond served on the advisory committee for the establishment of the National Translation Center for the Library of Congress.

A Ph. D. in Spanish linguistics from Georgetown University, she has taught courses on Spanish translation and English as a second language. Her

––––––––   449   ––––––––

publications include numerous translations reprinted in the Congressional Record and Committee prints, articles and book reviews in the Modern Language Journal, ATA Chronicle and the Journal of the Society of Technical Communications. Editor of the Proceedings of the 29th and 30th Annual Conferences of the American Translations Association, she has a 20-page article forthcoming in Annals dealing with the need for and use of translation in the U. S.

As a member for over twenty years in the AATSP, Hammond coordinated workshops on translation and interpretation at the annual meetings in Madrid and Los Angeles.

Award for Rassias Method

For the second year the Rassias Foundation at Dartmouth College announces the James A. Perkins Award for the best scholarly essay evaluating the Rassias Method for teaching languages. The $1,000 prize honors the former Chairman of the Presidential Commission on Foreign Language and International Studies and one of the foremost leaders in the field of International Education. To enter the competition, scholars should submit an essay, of not more than 3,000 words, describing their teaching experience using the Rassias Method, (also called the Dartmouth Intensive Language Model, or DILM) and evaluating quantifiable results (for example, oral and written test scores using an established rating system; attitudinal changes toward language learning and cultures; data on changes in student enrollment patterns in levels beyond introductory classes; the effect of the DILM experience on the learning and teaching of the assistant teachers; studies of variants and adaptations of the model; and similar projects). Previously published manuscripts are eligible and may be submitted for this prize. Info: Chairman of the Selection Committee, Professor James F. Jones, Department of Romance Languages and Literatures, Box 1077, One Brookings Dr., Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899.

Kenneth Chastain Receives Foreign Language Awards

Dr. Kenneth Chastain, Professor of Spanish at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, was presented the Florence Steiner Award for Leadership in Postsecondary Foreign Language Education. He received a commemorative plaque, and the wide range of contribution he has made -and continues to make- to foreign language education were cited.

Dr. Chastain began his career teaching Spanish and English in high schools in Indiana. He then moved on the postsecondary level and taught Spanish at Purdue University for eight years and Asbury College for one year before assuming his present position. He has spent summers as a visiting professor at the University of California in Los Angeles and at McGill University in Montreal and was a visiting professor for a semester at the University of Arizona. He has also conducted week- and month-long workshops and lecture tours on methods for English-as-a-Second-Language teachers in Colombia, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Spain, and Yugoslavia.

Dr. Chastain did his undergraduate work at Indiana University and received his M. A. in Spanish from Ball State University. He completed his Ph. D. at Purdue University where he majored in foreign language education with minors in Spanish and experimental design. Over the years, he has made many presentations at professional meetings and has served as a consultant to numerous publishers.

Dr. Chastain's article, «Native Speaker Reaction to Instructor-Identified Student Second Language Errors», published in the Modern Language journal, was cited by that publication as its best article in 1980. The second edition of his book, Developing Second Language Skills: Theory to Practice (Rand McNally) was translated into Japanese. His most recent major work is the third edition of Developing Second Language Skills: Theory and Practice published by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

ACTFL, November 1989

News Item

New ACTFL Officers for 1990-91

The recently elected officers of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) were announced at the opening session of the Council's Annual Meeting in Boston on Friday, November 17. President-Elect: Dr. Lynn A. Sandstedt, Chairperson of the Department of Hispanic Studies and Professor of Spanish at the University of Northern Colorado in Greeley; Members of the Executive New Publications

New Publications

Nuestra Voz

Our editorial board welcomes monographs dedicated to the works of women writers from Spain and Latin America. We strive to provide a forum that allows scholars to explore the contributions of these writers in a series that transcends traditional boundaries in order to promote a greater understanding of their artistry. Studies that incorporate current theoretical models are especially

––––––––   450   ––––––––

encouraged. We accept works on writers from all periods including:
I. Critical Studies (including comparative studies incorporating other traditions)
II. Theoretical works, especially those dealing with aspects of gender
III. Critical editions
IV. Translations into English
V. Bibliographies

Info: Amy R. Williamsen, Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721.

Book on Hispanic Theater

Hispanic Theater in the United States and Puerto Rico. Con el auspicio de la Fundación Ford se ha publicado este año un informe presentado por Joanne Pottlitzer y preparado para su publicación por la escritora, editora e historiadora Nina Dressner Cobb, sobre el teatro hispánico en Estados Unidos y Puerto Rico. Joanne Pottlitzer, productora y directora de representaciones teatrales, ha logrado realizar dicho informe como resultado de sus investigaciones en 150 instituciones y entrevistas con más de 200 personas conectadas al asunto considerado. El teatro hispánico es tratado dentro de su complejo contexto cultural y está dividido en cinco capítulos y dos apéndices que desarrollan los siguientes aspectos: la diversidad de culturas, la historia del teatro hispánico en EEUU y Puerto Rico (1865-1965), movimiento contemporáneo del teatro hispánico (1965-85), actividades actuales e información general, con el interés de fomentar el desarrollo y la estabilidad de dicho teatro. Se puede obtener esta publicación sin costo alguno dirigiéndose a: Hispanic Theater, Ford Foundation, Office of Reports, 320 East 43rd St., New York, NY 10017. Para mayor información, dirigirse a Oona Sullivan (212) 573-5150.

Margarita E. Galarza

University of Southern California

Nuevo Texto Crítico

Le invito a formar parte de los lectores de Nuevo Texto Crítico, revista de la nueva crítica literaria latinoamericana, que comenzamos a publicar en 1988. Nuestro objetivo es ayudar a crear un espacio de discusión crítica, análisis y difusión informativa sobre la literatura latinoamericana, Deseamos que el ámbito de esta tarea colectiva sea el universitario o, en términos más generales, el de la enseñanza, o el del simple (pero complejo) afán de conocimiento de lectores no especializados. Sólo podremos lograr este objetivo con su apoyo activo, a través de su lectura y su suscripción, de su participación en un amplio grupo de lectores interesados y orientados por intereses compartidos. Nuevo Texto Crítico tiene un antecedente en Texto crítico, la revista fundada en 1975 in México. Durante once años publicamos inéditos de Julio Cortázar, Gabriel García Márquez y otros escritores, junto con decenas de estudios de los mejores críticos latinoamericanistas. La nueva revista, Nuevo Texto Crítico, ha iniciado su vida estadounidense publicando ya excelentes trabajos de escritores y críticos, y proyectamos presentar próximos números monográficos dedicados a temas como: Mujer y Literatura en America Latina; America Latina y la postmodernidad; La novela latinoamericana a las puertas del siglo XXI. Info: Nuevo Texto Crítico, Dept. of Spanish and Portuguese, Bldg. 260, Room 282, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305.

New Computer Journal

World Wide Product Directory is a new periodical dedicated to product feedback, reviews, and articles on computer related language teaching and learning. Editor, Seth Thomas Schneider offers a free copy of the first issue of all who contact him. Product feedback reviews, and articles for future issues and solicited. Info: P. O. Box 895, Stanford, CA 94309; (415) 493-8800; COMPUSERV 72310, 3611.

Curriculum Guides

Curriculum guides for Teaching Foreign Languages in Elementary and Middle Schools (FLEAMS) are now available in Japanese as well as German, Spanish and French, from the University of Denver. The curriculum guides contain 6 units of text and support activities. For more information contact Eleanor R. Hoffman, FLEAMS Project Director, Dept. of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Univ. of Denver, University Park, Denver, CO 80208; (303) 871-2185.

Newsletter of the Japanese Teachers Network

October 1989, p. 6

1990 Calendar

Ecuadorian Literature of the Last 30 Years, 5-10 June, Ecuador. Info: Michael Handelsman, Dept. of Romance Languages, Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville 37996, or C. Michael Waag, Comision Fulbright, Casilla. 826-A, Quito, Ecuador.

International Congress on Latin American Theater, 6-9 June, Washington, DC. Info: Mario Rojas, Dept. of Modern Languages and Literatures, The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC 20064.

Association of Departments of Foreign Languages Seminar East, 7-9 June, State College, PA. Info: ADFL, 10 Astor Pl., New York, NY 10003-6981.

International Institute on Iberoamerican Literature, 18-21 June, Providence, RI. Info: Julio Ortega, Dept. of Hispanic Studies, Box 1961, Brown Univ., Providence, RI 02912.

Association of Departments of Foreign Languages Seminar West, 21-23 June, Tucson.

––––––––   451   ––––––––

Info: ADFL, 10 Astor PI., New York, NY 20003-6981

Computers and Teaching in the Humanities, 23-25 June, Fordham Univ. Info: Craig B. Brush, Modern Languages Dept., Fordham Univ., Bronx, NY 10458.

MLA Institute: Current Issues in Foreign Language Teaching, 8-20 July, Middlebury. Info: - Foreign Language Summer Institute, MLA, 10 Astor Pl., New York, NY 10003-6981; (212) 475-9500.

Summer Session for Language Teachers, 9 July-3 August, W Lafayette, IN. Info: Alan Garfinkel, Dept. of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Stanley Coulter Hall, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette 47907; (317) 494-0397.

International Society for Humor Studies, 29 July-4 August, Sheffield. Info: Mark Glazer, Coll. of Arts and Sciences, Univ. of Texas at Pan American, Edinburgh, TX 78539.

Linguistic Association of Canada and the U. S., 7-11 August, Fullerton. Info: Valerie B. Makkai, LACUS, P. O. Box 101, Lake Bluff, IL 60044; (312) 234-3997.

American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, 10-14 August, Miami Beach. Info: AATSP, P. O. Box 6349, Mississippi State, MS 39762-6349.

Second Caribbean Language Conference, 21-24 August, Port-Of-Spain, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Info: Frank W. Medley, Jr., Dept. of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia 29208 or Caribbean Language Conference, School of Languages, 6 Alcázar St., Port-Of-Spain, Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, W. I.

Fédération Internationale des Langues et Littératures Modernes: The Impact of Language and Literature on Contacts between Peoples, 21-29 August, Novi Sad. Info: Miodrag Radovic, Universitet Novi Sad, Filozofski Fakultet, Stevana Musica bb/III, 21000 Novi Sad, Yugoslavia.

Word and Image Studies, 27-31 August, Zurich. Info: P. J. de Voogd, Letteren, P. O. Box 7161, Vrije Universiteit, 1007 MC Amsterdam, Netherlands.

International Society for the Study of European Ideas: Comparative History of European Nationalism, 3-8 September, Catholic Univ. of Louvain Info: Ezra Talmor, ISSEI Conference, Kibbutz Nachshonim, D. N. Mercaz 73 190, Israel.

Southeastern Medieval Association, 27 29 September, Raleigh. Info: Brent A. Pitts, Dept. of Foreign Languages, Meredith College, Raleigh NC 27607-5298.

Iowa Foreign Language Association, 5-6 October, Sioux City. Info: Dave McAlpine, Morningside College, Sioux City, LA 51106.

European Studies Conference, 11-13 October, Omaha. Info: Bernard Kolasa, Political Studies, Univ. of Nebraska at Omaha, NE 68182; (402) 554-3617.

Purdue University Conference on Romance Languages, Literatures and Film, 11-13 October, W. Lafayette. Info: Anthony Tamburri, Dept. of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Stanley Coulter Hall, Purdue Univ., W. Lafayette, IN 47907; (317) 494-3827.

American Translators Association, 11-14 October, New Orleans. Info: American Translators Association, 109 Croton Ave., Ossining, NY 10562,

Foreign Language Association of North Carolina, 19-20 October, Durham. Info: Wayne Figart, 204 N. 16th St., Wilmington, NC 28401.

Illinois Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 19-20 October, Chicago. Info: ICTFL, P. O. Box 5633, Springfield, IL 62705; (217) 782-2826.

Sixteenth-Century Studies Conference, 25-27 October, St. Louis. Info: Elisabeth Gleason, History Dept., Univ. of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94117.

Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 26-27 October, Youngstown Info: Foreign Language Conference, Dept. of Foreign Languages, Youngstown State Univ., Youngstown, OH 44555; (216) 742-3461.

Midwest Modern Language Association, 1-3 November, Kansas City. Info: María A. Duarte, 302 English and Philosophy Bldg., Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City 52242-1408.

Massachusetts Foreign Language Association, 2-3 November, Burlington, MA. Info: Robert E. Courchesne, Conference Coordinator, 56 Stagecoach Dr., Marshfield, MA 02050.

Fourteenth Southeast Regional Conference of the International Reading Association, 7-9 November, Louisville. Info: International Reading Association, P. O., Box 8139, Newark, DE 19714.

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 22-24 November, New Orleans. Pre-Conference Workshops, 19-21 November. Info: ACTFL, 6 Executive Plaza, Yonkers, NY; (914) 963-8830.

Modern Language Association, 27-30 December, Chicago. Info: MLA, 10 Astor Pl., New York, NY 10003-6981.

1991 Calendar

Symposium on Spanish and Portuguese Bilingualism, 24-26 January, Coral Gables. Info: Ana Roca, Dept. of Modern Languages, Florida International Univ., Miami, FL 33199; (305) 554 2851.

Australasian Universities Language and

––––––––   452   ––––––––

Literature Association, 4-8 February, Australia. Info: R. White, Dept. of French, Univ. of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, 9-13 March, New York. Info: TESOL, 1118 22nd St., Ste. 205, Washington, DC 20037.

Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, 21-24 March, Indianapolis. Info: Jody Thrush, Madison Area Technical College, 3550 Anderson St., Madison, WI 53704; (608) 246-6573.

Fallecimiento de dos españoles destacados en 1990, El 25 de enero de 1990 falleció D. Dámaso Alonso (1898-1990), distinguido poeta y crítico, autor del famoso libro Hijos de la ira, director por muchos años de la Real Academia Española. Falleció en su domicilio en su Madrid nativo.

El 20 de febrero de 1990 falleció en su domicilio madrileño D. Joaquín Casalduero (1903-1990), destacado crítico y escritor.

National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, 24-27 May, Boston, Info: Sherie L. Voland-Koob, NAFSA, 1860 19th St. NW, Washington, DC 20009.

Seventeenth World Congress of the FIPLV, Theme: Foreign Language Learning and Lifelong Education, 10-14 August, Pécs, Hungary. Info: P. Basel, National Center for Foreign Language Teaching of T. I. T, XI., Bocskai ut 37, H-1113 Budapest, Hungary.

International Comparative Literature Association, 23-28 August, Tokyo. Info: Dept. of Comparative Literature and Culture, Univ. of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153, Japan.

Midwest Modern Language Association, 14-16 November, Chicago. Info: Maria A. Duarte, 302 English and Philosophy Bldg., Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City 52242-1408.

We Remember

Charles Blake

Charles Blake, an employee of the New Rochelle Board of Education for 35 years and a prominent educator, died November 9 of cancer in Wilmington, Del. He was 78.

While working for the New Rochelle schools, he held several positions, including supervisor of foreign-language instruction from 1964 to 1978 and chairman of adult education for 20 years. He also taught at the old Lincoln elementary school and Isaac E. Young Junior High School.

While teaching, he won the Distinguished Teacher Award of New York state from the Association of Foreign Language Teachers.

He spoke French, Spanish, German, Italian, Russian, Latin, Greek, Hebrew and Swahili with varying degrees of fluency, according to his relatives.

Mr. Blake was born August 3, 1911 in New York City to Charles and Nellie Blake. He grew up in White Plains, where he attended schools.

In 1933, Mr. Blake graduated from Wesleyan University in Middletown, Conn., where he was Phi Beta Kappa. At the time, he was one of only three blacks to receive the honor.

In 1934, he attended the New York School of Social Services, part of Columbia University, on a National Urban League scholarship.

In 1946, he graduated with a master's degree in administration and organization from Columbia University.

Before becoming an educator, Mr. Blake worked as an Italian-speaking social worker and county probation officer from 1934 to 1943.

After working for the New Rochelle schools, he moved to Wilmington in 1978 and founded the Academy of Lifelong Learning at the University of Delaware. He received a merit award from the university for his work.

In 1952, he married Anne Viola Henderson in New York City.

Mr. Blake was former president of the New Rochelle YMCA, a lifelong member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and an elder of the Presbyterian Church of New Rochelle and of Newark, DE. He was also a founding member and officer of the Association of Supervisors and Administrators of Weschester County.

From the 1950s until his death, he was a member of the Knights of the Round Table, a group of black intellectuals who presented scholarly works at monthly meetings.

Gannett Westchester Newspaper

November 17, 1989

––––––––   453   ––––––––


The Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian World

Teresa Bolet Rodríguez137

Literature, Arts, and Society

Biography of García Lorca Lauded

The Oct. 8, 1989 issue of The New York Times Book Review features a front-page review of Federico García Lorca: A Life, by Ian Gibson. Excerpts of Allen Josephs's review follow.

The story of García Lorca's brief life (1898-1936) seems forever fated to begin with his death: «Federico García Lorca was thirty-eight when anti-Republican rebels in Granada assassinated him at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War in 1936». So begins, almost ineluctably, the introduction to Ian Gibson's rich biography of the great Spanish poet.

Mr. Gibson has captured the chiaroscuro of García Lorca's life as no one before him has done. Unlike previous biographers, he has allowed access to the Lorca archives, specifically to «many unpublished manuscripts, his letters to his family, and a wide range of correspondence received». He was also given encouragement, cooperation and «much useful information» by Isabel García Lorca, the poet's younger sister. Armed with that privileged information, twenty years of research, a scrupulous sense of honesty and the wise decision to limit himself to Lorca's life and not to include elaborate critical consideration of his works, Mr. Gibson has written a distinguished biography that never falters on the tightrope between readability and credibility.

To say that Ian Gibson -Irish by birth and a Spanish citizen since 1984- is the authority on García Lorca's life is probably to understate the case. Mr. Gibson understands Spanish culture from the inside, and he paints the complex historical and geographical background of Lorca's native region of Andalusia perfectly. He has accomplished an original critical triangulation -one that is essential for fully understanding García Lorca's life, his art and his death. He has told us those parts of the poet's life he has actually been able to verify and has not indulged in surmises. His disarming candor about the impossibility of always knowing the truth and the lack of any overriding thesis lend this very believable account the air of a classic.

George R. McMurray

Colorado State University

Camilo José Cela, Nobel Prize, 1989, in English Translation

In awarding the 1989 Nobel Prize in Literature to Camilo José Cela, the Spanish author of 10 novels and many works of nonfiction, the Swedish Academy said that his 1942 novel, The Family of Pascual Duarte, was the most popular work of fiction in Spanish since Don Quijote, published in 1605.

«But Pascual Duarte has not been available in English for several years, nor have Mr. Cela's other novels. But two of his novels are being brought back into print. Little, Brown, which published Pascual Duarte in 1964, said yesterday (Oct. 31) that it would reissue it in hard cover and paperback this year. And Farrar, Straus & Giroux will do the same with The Hive (La Colmena), a Cela novel that it published in 1953 and later licensed to Ecco Press...»

Ediciones del Norte, Hanover, NH, has two Cela novels in print: La Colmena and Mazurca Para Dos Muertos, and dealers in foreign language books, of course, keep his novels in stock. And a couple of his nonfiction works are available from a university press and an academic publisher. But, despite his fame in the Hispanic world and Europe, Cela is no exception to the tradition among U. S. publishers of being reluctant to consider translations of foreign works and, when they do publish them, to print very limited editions. Let us hope that Cela's Nobel Prize in Literature will improve his fortunes among our publishers and bring him a substantial number of readers for his works in English. [The New York Times, Nov. 1, 1989]

Robert G. Mead, Jr.

University of Connecticut, Emeritus

Se descubren importantes pinturas neolíticas de arte rupestre levantino

Los arqueólogos de las localidades de la Marina alicantina Jávea y Denia, Josep Antoni Casabó y Josep Gisbert, respectivamente, presentaron el miércoles 20 de septiembre, en el castillo de Denia, el reciente descubrimiento de dos grandes conjuntos de arte rupestre levantino. A juicio del profesor Mauro Hernández, catedrático de Prehistoria de la universidad de Alicante, estas pinturas pueden datar de la segunda mitad del cuarto milenio antes de Cristo, o sea, finales del Neolítico Antiguo y principios del Medio. El excepcional descubrimiento fue calificado por el mismo Hernández como el yacimiento más importante de toda la Comunidad Valenciana. Todos los expertos destacaron el excelente estado de conservación de las pinturas descubiertas. [El País, 21 de septiembre de 1989]

John E Gabriele

The College of Wooster

Vargas Llosa's Novel El hablador Translated to English

The October 29, 1989 issue of The New York Times Book Review presents a long frontpage

––––––––   454   ––––––––

review of Vargas Llosa's The Storyteller. The following paragraphs are excerpts from the review by Ursula K. LeGuin.

We human beings long to get the world under our control and to make other people act just like us. In the last few centuries, some of us found out how to do it. The result is that now many of us all over the world are eating hamburgers at McDonald's. Man's control of the world is debatable, but his success in making other people act just like him is not. No culture that has come in contact with Western industrial culture has been unchanged by it, and most have been assimilated or annihilated, surviving only as vestigial variations in dress, cooking or ethics.

To make this tremendous process of acculturation the central subject of a novel is a tremendous undertaking. Mario Vargas Llosa is not a tremendous novelist, but he is a wise and canny one, and very skilled. His fascinating new book opens this subject, the impact of «civilization» on the «primitive», to intellectual consideration in the novelistic mode of passionate emotional and moral involvement.

Translated into beautifully easygoing English by Helen Lane, The Storyteller is science fiction at its best. Accurately following the investigations of a science -anthropology, in this case- as far as they have gone, it then asks: what if? What if there were a remote Amazonian tribe that had kept itself unacculturated, so far by moving away from the Incas, the conquistadors, the Jesuits, the evangelists, the rubber planters, the tree cutters and the anthropologists, by keeping on the move, not running but walking? «The men who walk», the Machiguengas call themselves. And what if a young Jew at the University of San Marcos became intrigued by these people and began to follow them farther and farther into the jungle and into the spirit, until he became himself a man who walks?

More than one voice tells this story. The first is that of a thoughtful, amiably cynical Peruvian who sees in a gallery in Florence the photograph of a storyteller of the eastern Peruvian Amazon amid a circle of women and men. At the heart of the circle of Machiguengas is the silhouette of a man the narrator recognizes as his old college friend Saúl Zuratas. And so he began to tell the story of the storyteller for this is a book of and about stories, the stories that history silences, the stories of the obscure, the private, the prehistoric; and it all centers on that point, the person at the heart of a circle of people, speaking.

Certainly the concerns of The Storyteller are intellectual, ethical and artistic, all at once and brilliantly so. To me this is Mr. Vargas Llosa's most engaging and accessible book, for the urgency of its subject purifies and illuminates the writing. I was spellbound, as if by the voice of that storyteller in the circle of listeners; his voice is many voices; his voice is the tribal voice. The author, in a masterly interweaving of actual myth and novelistic imagination, takes us directly and immediately into the Machiguenga world, yet never presumes to speak as one of them. There is no observer and observed here, only participation -which is what storytelling is all about. To hear the Machiguenga stories, to participate in that life, is an experience of horror, exhilaration, beauty, great strangeness and deep concern. Encircled by their fierce cosmogony and the fearful legends of their past, we begin to walk with them; we begin to understand why they must walk, must never cease moving on: so that the sun will rise, so that the world will be in order, so that the obligation will be fulfilled.

George R. McMurray

Colorado State University

Noticias de Chile

Vargas Llosa en Chile

El afamado escritor y político peruano fue invitado por el Teatro de Cámara Abril para el estreno de la puesta en escena de su novela Pantaleón y las visitadoras. La obra tiene una duración de dos horas. [Revista de Libros de El Mercurio, 20 de agosto de 1989, 7].

José Donoso y la versión teatral de Este Domingo

José Donoso y Carlos Cerda trabajan desde hace algunos meses en la versión teatral de Este Domingo, que ICTUS estrenará a comienzos del próximo año. Esta es la segunda obra de Donoso que ICTUS pone en escena. Sueños de Mala Muerte, estrenada en 1983, fue no sólo aplaudida en Santiago, sino también en los escenarios de Caracas y Buenos Aires. [ICTUS informa, julio-agosto-septiembre de 1989, 2].

Sexo, Tenis y Crimen en Match Ball, novela erótica de Antonio Skármeta

Publicada por la Editorial Sudamericana en Buenos Aires (1989), en la novela Skármeta muestra sus cualidades como avezado narrador y hábil aprovechador de la técnica cinematográfica. [Revista de Libros de El Mercurio, 17 de septiembre de 1989, 2].

Se reseñan nuevos libros sobre Gabriela Mistral

Se trata de Gabriela Mistral y Joaquín García Monge: una correspondencia inédita de Marga Arce (Santiago: Editorial Andrés Bello, 1989) y Epistolario de Gabriela Mistral y Eduardo Barrios de Luis Vargas Saavedra (Santiago: Universidad Católica de Chile, 1988). [Revista de Libros de El Mercurio, 18 de junio de 1989, 2]. Los otros dos ensayos son: Gabriela Mistral, guardiana de la vida de Dolores Pincheira (Santiago: Editorial Andrés Bello, 1989) y El último viaje de Gabriela Mistral de Santiago Daydí-Tolson (Santiago: Editorial Aconcagua, 1989). [Revista de Libros de El Mercurio, 17 de septiembre, 5 y 8].

Texto completo de La Negra Ester

La revista Apuntes de Teatro de la Universidad Católica de Chile, está haciendo una labor importante, en cada uno de sus números ofrece el texto completo de una obra de teatro. En el último número otoño-invierno

––––––––   455   ––––––––

aparece el libreto, hasta ahora inédito, de la obra de Roberto Parra, La Negra Ester. Además se incluyen artículos sobre este verdadero hito en la vida cultural del país. Esta publicación es un esfuerzo intelectual que intenta abordar el arte teatral chileno y la realidad de nuestros autores desde diversos ángulos. [Revista de Libros de El Mercurio, 22 de octubre de 1989, 7].

Viajan por el mundo

El Teatro-Circo, con La Negra Ester, de Roberto Parra, dirigida por Andrés Pérez, participa actualmente en el Festival de Montreal, Canadá. Luego asistirá al Festival de Londres, y de allí realizará una gira por el resto de Europa. (ICTUS informa, mayo-junio, 1989].

Editorial Planeta, 25 años en Chile

Tiene contemplado para los próximos meses el lanzamiento de importantes autores, entre los cuales se destacan Marco Antonio de la Parra con La secreta Guerra Santa de Santiago de Chile; Fernando Alegría con Allende, y la obra galardonada con el Premio de Poesía de El Mercurio 1989, Género Femenino de Teresa Calderón. Seix-Barral, también del grupo Planeta, por su parte, editará próximamente el último libro de José Donoso, Taratuta, y Planeta Internacional sacará El Conocimiento Inútil de Jean-Francois Revel. [Revista de Libros de El Mercurio, 1 de octubre de 1989, 7].

Inés Dölz-Blackburn

University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

La literatura del proceso de paz

Este es el nombre que en Colombia se le ha dado recientemente a una serie de textos literarios e históricos que tienen como tema los procesos sociales y políticos que ha vivido el país en los últimos años. Estos procesos, se comenta, irónicamente han estado marcados por una ausencia casi total de la paz que ahora le da nombre a esa literatura. Algunos analistas en la prensa colombiana han establecido coincidencias significativas entre esta literatura social y aquella producida en los años cincuentas y comienzo de los sesentas, que corresponden a la época llamada simplemente La Violencia. Entre estas similitudes se menciona el carácter testimonial de los relatos, que muchas veces tienden a ser autobiográficos, buscando dejar constancia escrita de lo que los participantes vieron y sufrieron durante los conflictos en que participaron.

Un artículo en el número de marzo de la Gaceta de Colcultura, al comparar esos dos períodos, indicaba que «en los dos casos encontramos un tipo de relato que lleva de la mano al lector por los recodos más íntimos de la 'historia' y que, incluso pretende sobrepasarla, basándose para ello en lo que constituye su fuerza y al mismo tiempo su mayor limitación los protagonistas y los hechos». Otra semejanza, según lo observado por la prensa nacional, es la substracción progresiva de elementos teorizantes en esa literatura, es decir, la renuncia más o menos explícita a encontrar razones o dar respuestas. El mismo artículo de Gaceta indica que «la saturación del tema no sólo produjo esta consecuencia» y agrega que «mucho más preocupante puede resultar... la responsabilidad que pueda caber a este desordenado y profuso volumen de información, en el hastío en que ha derivado el propio proceso de paz... dada la confusión a la que pudieron contribuir algunos de estos trabajos y... la equívoca y peligrosa sensación de haber agotado el tema». No menos de dos docenas de títulos recientes de obras identificables como «literatura del proceso de paz» se venden actualmente en las librerías colombianas, algunas de ellas promocionadas por amplias campañas publicitarias.

Gilberto Gómez Ocampo

Universdad Javeriana, Bogotá

Se establece la Fundación Borges

La Fundación Jorge Luis Borges cuya creación fue anunciada por María Kodama, viuda del escritor, en Ginebra en 19 86, y presentada el pasado 24 de agosto en Buenos Aires, día del cumpleaños de Borges, será un centro de investigación y documentación sobre la obra del célebre escritor argentino. La sede de la fundación será Ginebra, ciudad en que Borges vivió parte de su juventud, lugar en que se sitúa su último libro Los conjurados y a cuya sombra nació la idea de la fundación, y sitio en que murió el escritor. Según Kodama, la fundación creará un premio Borges de literatura que se pretende sea de gran prestigio, destinado de forma alternativa a cuento y poesía, los dos géneros que el mismo Borges practicó. [El País, 14 de noviembre de 1989]

John E. Gabriele

The College of Wooster

Escritora gana premio Planeta

La escritora y periodista española de 42 años, Soledad Puértolas, ganó el Premio Planeta de Novela 1989 por su obra titulada Queda la noche. Este galardón, que se ha concedido 38 veces, tiene un monto de 168 mil dólares, el más alto de España. El jurado, compuesto por cinco catedráticos de literatura y el Presidente de la Editorial Planeta, José Manuel Lara, eligió la obra entre 23 finalistas de un total de 320 postulantes. Es la quinta obra que ha escrito la autora. El premio lo ganó el año pasado Gonzalo Torrente Ballester por su novela Filomeno a mi pesar. [Revista de Libros de El Mercurio, 22 de octubre de 1989, 4]

Inés Dölz-Blackburn

University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

Joaquín Bestard, ganador del premio nacional «José Rubén Romero»

Al novelista y cuentista yucateco, Joaquín Bestard Vásquez, le fue otorgado, por segunda vez, el premio nacional de la novela en noviembre de 1989 por Trazar un sueño en el espejo. Hasta el momento, Bestard es el autor de seis novelas y cuatro colecciones de cuentos. Los temas que Bestard elabora más son

––––––––   456   ––––––––

los de la vida de la gente común en México, D. F. y Yucatán ejemplificados en la novela La calle todos olvidan y la colección de cuentos, Los tiempo dorados de Tránsito. Sin embargo, su novela de próxima aparición, La obsesión de Germán Ortega, no es como las novelas anteriores porque tiene lugar en México, Centro América y Sud América y emplea el lenguaje y costumbrismo de los tres lugares. Mayormente, la novela es una obra antiguerrera. En una entrevista reciente conmigo Bestard hizo la pregunta, «¿qué pasaría si vuelve una dictadura en un país latinoamericano con todo el adelanto tecnológico, electrónico que poseemos los seres humanos ahorita? El momento en que todo esto caiga en manos de un dictador o de una junta militar, ¿a dónde nos va a llevar?»

Lee A. Daniel

Texas Christian University

El «Rómulo Gallegos» para Manuel Mejía Vallejo

«Este año (1989), ...el premio se le otorgó al colombiano Manuel Mejía Vallejo. Viejo combatiente por la dignidad y libertad humanas, la obra del autor La casa de las dos palmas ofrece algunos méritos, ya evidentes en El día señalado. Su indeclinable devoción por los temas propios de su tierra es tan fuerte que incluso su narrativa ha renunciado a la renovación formal, aunque su oficio literario alcanza su verdadera definición en la disciplina y en su insobornable comportamiento ético... Se premiaron casi cincuenta años de oficio literario y, sobre todo, una actitud moral que no admite la menor duda». [Quimera (Edición Latinoamericana), No. 1]

Los ganadores anteriores del premio «Rómulo Gallegos» incluyen nombres tales como Mario Vargas Llosa (1967), Gabriel García Márquez (1972), Carlos Fuentes (1977), Fernando del Paso (1982), Abel Posee (1987).

Kurt L. Levy

University of Toronto

Prizes and Awards (October-December, 1989)

Various literary and artistic prizes and awards have recently been announced. The following, listed by country, are some of the many:


Premio Herralde de Novela to Miguel Sánchez Ortiz for his La gran ilusión.

Premio Octubre de Novela de Catalán to María de la Pau Janer for her L'hora del eclipsis.

Premio Azorín de Literatura to José Vicente Pascual González for his La montaña de Taishan.

Premio Cervantes de Literatura 1989 to Paraguayan writer Augusto Roa Bastos.

Premio Euroamericana de Grabado 1989 to Mexican artist Miguel Conde.


Premios Narrativa (Colima-INBA) to Fernando Curiel (biography) and Carlos Montemayor (translation).

Premio Nacional de Poesía «Jaime Sabines Guetiérrez» to Guatemalan poet Otto Raúl González.

Premio Nacional de Teatro para Niños to Hugo a Salcedo.

Premio Nacional de Poesía «Ramón López Velarde» to José Jaime Ruiz.

Premios Sor Juana Inés; poetry -to Margarita Zendejas, Iliana Godoy, and Enrique Ramos Valdés; essay -to Cuban Alejandro González Acosta and Colombian Adolfo León Caixedo.


Premio de Novela Policíaca y de Espionaje Latinoamericano to Paco Ignacio Taibo II.


Premio «Etruria di Litteratura Città di Volterra» to Brazilian writer Jorge Amado.


Médici literary prize for foreigners to Colombian writer Álvaro Mutis.

Sam L. Slick

University of Southern Mississippi

Necrology (November-December, 1989)

The deaths of the following prominent figures in Hispanic arts and letters are to be noted:

Enrique Pezzoni, 69, Argentina literary critic and translator, November 1, in Buenos Aires.

Inés Arredondo, 61, Mexican writer, November 2, in Mexico City.

Juan Bernie, 78, Spanish poet, November 9, in Córdoba.

Dolores Ibárruri (La Pasionaria), Spanish poetical and artistic symbol and inspiration, November 12, in Madrid.

Eduardo García Maroto, pioneer of Spanish cinema, November 16, in Madrid.

Ángel Curotto, 86, Uruguayan theatrical director, December 3, in Montevideo.

Sam L. Slick

University of Southern Mississippi

Women's Issues and Spain Today

The following update on feminism in Spain is based primarily on an interview I had with sociologist María Ángeles Durán on June 30, 1989. Formerly a professor at the University of Zaragoza, María Ángeles Durán holds the rank of «Profesora de Investigación» at the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. In addition, she founded the women's studies program at the Universidad Autónoma of Madrid and organizes the yearly wnference on women held there each Spring. For some time she has been involved with WHO since her specialty within sociology is health. She is currently working on a study to determine how people spend their

––––––––   457   ––––––––

time so that it can be factored into the sums spent on public health projects. An author of many books, María Ángeles Durán has lectured in many different places, including the United States.

Women's Studies in Spain

About eleven schools in Spain have women's studies programs. Although no degrees are given, certificates are issued for classes taken. María Angeles Durán directs the Seminario de Estudios de la Mujer de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid which sponsors a yearly monographic conference on women and topics such as the Middle Ages, law, literature, and art. Almost every year for the last nine years the proceedings of these conferences have been published and are still readily available. Unlike in the United States, little feminist scholarship is done in literature, most being under taken instead in sociology and history. Like in the United States women specializing in women's studies are told they lack formal preparation in their disciplines. On the advice of a female American professor, María Angeles Durán did what many women have done to reconcile personal desire and societal bias: she got her tenure before she began to work on the women's issues that interested her.

Feminism in Spain

As a visit to the Librería de Mujeres will confirm, more and more books on women in Spain are being published by Spaniards, although foreign feminism is certainly not unknown. What is missing is «literatura gris», the literature published by small presses, conference proceedings, and collections of unpublished works. Some networking, like the Asociación de Juristas, exists, but not on a large scale. According to Durán, feminism is growing in Spain, and, on the whole, a feeling of hope for the future predominates. Other Spaniards are more restrained in their optimism. Pilar Folguera observes that despite the great strides made by feminism in Spain since 1975, in recent years, the feminist movement in Spain has dissipated and even declined, in part, because the fervor of feminism has diminished on the international level. Yet, Folguera sees a positive sign in an emerging counter-trend -the institutionalization of feminism, its in corporation into the government, the university, and other institutions138. Some Spanish feminists, however, even perceive this new trend as dangerous. Rosa Pardo maintains that while the diversification of the feminist movement may permit spontaneity and a variety of views, it leaves feminism vulnerable to a hierarchical society that attempts to «conducir el feminismo por caminos de integración al sistema y de normalización de la desigualdad»139. The fact that the patriarchal establishment has been obliged to address some women's issues is certainly evidence of progress. Whether this new development will curtail women's struggle for equality is yet to be seen. Undeniably, a growing feminist consciousness exists in Spain among women not formerly associated with the movement. It can also be said that Spanish women have now attained the basic reforms common in most Western democracies.


Abortion has been decriminalized for cases of 1) danger to the mother, 2) ill-formed fetus, and 3) rape. The national health plan does not pay for abortions. It is estimated that only 5% of the women who want abortions get them in Spain; women with money still go abroad for them. Despite the legalization of abortion under limited circumstances, anti-abortion groups picket clinics that perform them.

Sexual Harassment

An article in the ABC on sexual harassment of coeds at the University of Alicante prompted me to ask Professor Durán about this topic140. As every where harassment occurs in Spain at school and on the job. She cited the case of a Latin professor who was dismissed for sexist remarks. More cases, like this one, will occur as Spanish women increasingly feel they have a right to protest discrimination and harassment. Professor Durán made an interesting observation. According to her, the incidents of harassment will increase because the greater freedom and relaxed more experienced in Spain of late reduce men's fear of reprisal for sexual involvement and make it more difficult for women to refuse unwanted advances.

Women and Careers

The changes evidenced lately regarding women and careers involve not so much an increase in the number of women working as a shift in type of job from the farms and factories to the service industry. Although more and more women are entering professions, a great number of women devote themselves solely to their families. Professor Durán maintains that in Spain, where parents and siblings help one another in times of economic hardships, women as well as men enjoy greater stability and security, albeit less independence, in their lives than in the United States141. Although the Spanish constitution guarantees equality under the law and protects against discrimination on the basis of sex, women still suffer salary inequities and enjoy less job security. Likewise, in the field of education, the Ley General de Educación of 1970 establishing the individual's right to a general education has accounted for a rise in university attendance for women (up to 47.7% for the year 1983-84), but, in practice, this indication of improvement in the status of women contrasts with the tendency for women to study «feminine» careers, those that have lowest salaries and the highest unemployment.142

––––––––   458   ––––––––

Women and the Government

Article fourteen of the Constitution of 1978 includes a clause that guarantees equality under the law regardless of sex, but in practice women Spain are still struggling to see this provision fulfilled. One attempt to reach that end has been the resolution, passed by the Spanish Socialist Party at its 1988 Congress, that twenty-five percent of the administrative posts on all levels of government be held by women. In 1981 a declared feminist became a member of the Executive Committee of the Party; in 1985 a radical feminist was elected by parliament as a member of the Consejo del Poder Judicial, an independent council to supervise the courts; and by 1988, two women received cabinet appointments. The Instituto de la Mujer, a sub-department of the Ministry of Culture, works to further the cause of women with, among other things, publications such as La investigación sobre la mujer en la universidad española contemporánea (1982) and Mujer y sociedad en España (1700-1975) (1986). Its greatest challenge, however, is to make reality match general principles. The presence of women in this «Instituto» who are both feminist and socialists have allowed many campaigns on behalf of women's issues to be waged from within the government. Radical feminists have criticized the loss of political independence implicit in the integration of women into the political structure of the country, but «all in all», as Durán has said in one of her publications, «although the women's movement seems to be in a crisis, the aims that produced it are not: women's rights remain an unattained goal»143.

Catherine G. Bellver

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

1992, The Focus of a New Publication

The Spain '92 Foundation of Washington, DC and the Latin American Institute of the University of New Mexico are the co-sponsors of a new publication, titled Encounters, which will focus primarily on issues pertinent to the upcoming Quincentenary. Cultural and social topics of a more general nature of the United States, Latin America and Spain will also be included. In an editorial statement in the first issue, the Editor, José Tono Martínez, Managing Director, Gilbert W. Merkx, and Managing Editor, Linda Lane Kjeldgaard, state that the focus of Encounters «will be pan-Atlantic, pan-American, and pan-Iberian» and observe that «if modern and democratic Spain seeks to find its economic future in the new Europe, its cultural future stems from the American legacy. While the United States has been shaped by its European cultural inheritance, its demography is increasingly Latin American, and its economic future increasingly hemispheric». The first issue includes such items as interviews with Octavio Paz who comments on the significance of 1992 and Rafael Mazarrasa, President of the Spain '92 Foundation, who discusses the relationship between the United States and the Hispanic world. Also appearing in the inaugural issue is «The Spanish Black Legend: Origins of Anti-Hispanic Stereotypes» by Joseph E. Sánchez, Director of the National Park Service's Spanish Colonial Research Center at the University of New Mexico. Other texts include a report by Rosa Pereda on the present cultural activities in Spain, a comprehensive guide to quincentenary-related programs and activities and an original poem by Spanish Poet Laureate Angel González. Encounters will, no doubt, be of interest to countless readers. It will appear four times a year. The cost of a yearly subscription is $12 (U. S. A.) and $20 (foreign). Inquiries and subscriptions should be sent to the Latin American Institute of the University of New Mexico.

John E. Gabriele

The College of Wooster

King Juan Carlos I Fellowships Now Available for Secondary School Teachers

In anticipation of the Quincentenary celebration, the King Juan Carlos I Fellowships and Summer Program for Spanish Teachers have been created to familiarize secondary school teachers with contemporary Spanish culture. The five-week program, supported by the State Society for the Execution of Quincentenary Programs, La Fundación Ortega y Gasset, the Spain '92 Foundation and the University of Minnesota, will take place in Madrid yearly until 1992. The courses are specifically designed for teachers who need graduate level recertification. A maximum of three hundred fellowships of $2,000 will be awarded to qualified candidates. The Program includes both cultural and academic activities. To receive more information regarding application for a fellowship contact Dr. Luis Ramos García, 202 Westbrook Hall, University of Minnesota, 77 Pleasant Street SE, Minneapolis,

––––––––   459   ––––––––

MN 55455. Telephone: (612) 626-7134 or (612) 626-7138. [Encounters, 1, 1989]

John E. Gabriele

The College of Wooster

Tres nuevos canales privados para la televisión española

El Consejo de Ministros adjudicó el viernes 25 de agosto los tres canales privados de televisión a las sociedades Antena 3, Canal Plus y Telecinco. El proceso de selección ha sido muy difícil, según la ministra portavoz Rosa Conde. Antena 3 de Televisión, SA, ofrecerá «un producto diferente con una creatividad muy a la española» dirigida a un público familiar de un espectro social medio-bajo a alto, según informó Javier de Godó, presidente del Consejo de Administración del nuevo canal. Godó añadió que, en las emisiones de Antena 3, predominarán la información y el deporte, para crear también «una televisión de entretenimiento». El presidente de la Sociedad de Televisión Canal Plus dijo que la cadena, promovida por PRISA, editora de El País, y por Canal Plus de Francia, consistirá en un servicio a la carta, complementario de todas las demás existentes y dirigido a la familia española indicando que «se trata de un paso muy firme para hacer un canal de televisión auténticamente europeo». Miguel Durán, director general de la ONCE-sociedad que tiene el 25% de las acciones en Gestevisión-Telecinco-, insistió que el canal de Gestevisión tendrá un carácter social: «Hay en España dos millones de personas con diferentes minusvalías. Queremos emitir programas en los que se difunda el tratamiento adecuado para estas anomalías». Hubo varias reacciones respecto a las recientes adjudicaciones del Consejo de Ministros. El portavoz del PP en el Congreso, Luis Ramallo, declaró el apoyo de su partido en cuanto a la decisión del Consejo. Al contrario, Juan Berga, portavoz del PCE, recordó la oposición de su partido. Y, Luis Solana, director general de Radiotelevisión Española envió un telegrama de felicitación a los tres nuevos canales y ofreció la colaboración de Televisión Española en aquellos campos en los que se precise un trabajo en común. Las empresas seleccionadas deberán comenzar a emitir antes del 25 de marzo de 1990, primero, en Madrid y Barcelona y luego en Bilbao, Sevilla, La Coruña, Mallorca y otras regiones del país. [El País, 26 de agosto de 1989]

John E. Gabriele

The College of Wooster

Mexican-American Relations: A Crisis in the Making?

Neighbors who share a 2000-mile border and are economically interdependent (Mexico is our third largest trading partner and we are her first), the United States and Mexico are separated by their very different cultures and a high degree of mutual misunderstanding. Until we come to understand each other better, our two countries are doomed to years of difficult political and social relations despite our vital importance to each other.

As teachers of language and culture we can contribute to improving our students' understanding of Mexico -but to do so is not always an easy task. Our mass communications media are not always consistent nor deeply analytical in their coverage of Mexico, and their reports usually focus on crises and assume an American perspective. For better coverage we must look to specialized journals.

Two such recent sources on Mexico are Andrew Reding's «Mexico Under Salinas» in World Policy Review, Fall 1989, and Jorge G. Castañedas «Mexican President's Main Feat: Staying Afloat» in The Hartford Courant, Nov. 13, 19 89. A synthesis of their main points follows:

Despite President Saunas de Gortari's promise of modernization and democratization and his consequently favorable image in the United States, Reding believes that Saunas is viewed far less favorably in Mexico. There he is seen by many as «an elitist technocrat» who seeks to salvage the system which has ensured the dominance of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) since 1946, namely an alliance between the private sector and the Mexican right. Reding stresses the gap between the government's «reformist» image abroad and the other, less publicized actions by the President which belie such a perception (mainly his reluctance to allow labor unions true independence from government control and his «unconstitutional use of the army for domestic policy actions»).

Reding details a number of other moves (some patently illegal) by President Saunas and the PRI which he thinks repress or limit Mexico's ability to develop a free and independent political climate, and concludes that such limitations on the expression of the growing popular discontent in the country risk «an eventual social explosion which would have unforeseeable consequences» for both Mexico and the United States.

In his much shorter article Jorge Castañeda is also critical of Salinas's first year in office, but to a somewhat lesser degree than Reding. Castañeda notes the President's promise to privatize many of the government -owned industries, improve basic social services, and administer justice to all Mexicans. The author argues that Salinas's policies, so far, are indeed directed toward implementing the privatization of industry but that, on the other hand, they have done little or nothing to improve the administration of justice. The interest payments on the huge national debt of over 100 billion dollars have caused major cuts in spending on education, public health, housing, water supply, sewage disposal, etc. Castañeda observes that Salinas's policies seem to please the relatively affluent middle class Mexicans who can indulge their consumer instincts, and he adds «making the consumer class happy has also allowed Salinas to avoid fulfilling his other promise to the Mexican people: authentic

––––––––   460   ––––––––

election reform».

Agreeing with Reding, Castañeda believes that despite his contrary rhetoric, the President really wants to preserve the political dominance of the PRI. And, as Reding also stresses, Castañeda concludes that if the U. S. government and other sources of financing grow tired of or are unable to continue bailing Mexico out, «there will be the devil to pay. But that will be later, which is better than now»

Robert G. Mead, Jr.

University of Connecticut Emeritus

A Mexican Biography and the Mexican Economic Crisis

In early 1989, Jorge Díaz Serrano, the ex-director of PEMEX (Mexico's state owned oil industry), published his autobiography, Yo, Jorge Díaz Serrano, which relates his early life, his rise to power as one of Mexico's leading business executives, and his five-year imprisonment after being accused of embezzlement. Díaz Serrano's book is indispensable reading for anyone wishing to understand not only the economic crisis Mexico has suffered since the early 1980s, but also the political maneuvers that contributed to the crisis. As the architect of the four-year (1976-1980) expansion of PEMEX (that generated Mexico's unprecedented economic boom, Díaz Serrano was considered a viable presidential candidate for the upcoming 1992 election. But his success, according to his biography, aroused the jealousy of high-ranking politicians whose ambition «desencadenó el complot y la persecución». Díaz Serrano was forced out of PEMEX, shipped off to the USSR as Mexico's ambassador, then appointed senator in his native Sonora, and finally sent to prison.

Díaz Serrano refutes the charges of embezzlement in the following words: «En mi celda, muchas veces, he meditado sobre la falta de imaginación de mis acusadores, gente, evidentemente menor, que sólo sabe de negocios ratoneros, por lo que se les ocurrió que podrían relacionarme con un siniestro grupo, inventado por ellos, que se repartiría una comisión en la compraventa de dos barcos. No pensaron en que si yo hubiera decidido hacer dinero fácil, lo único que habría necesitado era hablar con los compradores para tener una fortuna como la del famoso Gulbenkian de los años anteriores a la guerra, a quien llamaban "Mister cinco porciento": Por cierto, en Lisboa visité el museo que Gulbenkian creó con maravillosas obras de arte».

Through the mistakes of the subsequent director of PEMEX, José Andrés de Oteyza, Díaz Serrano's personal tragedy became a national catastrophe when de Oteyza raised the price of Mexican oil and sent customers to Arab suppliers. As Díaz Serrano recalls, «Me dolió mucho ver derrumbarse el edificio que con tanto cuidado habíamos construido. No se publicaron después las cifras de exportación, pero de más de 1.3 millones de barriles diarios la exportación descendió a 300 mil. Era una verdadera catástrofe. Ahí se inició la crisis de la que todavía no nos reponemos...» [Visión, 26 de junio de 1989]

George R. McMurray

Colorado State University

Libro del presidente dominicano un «best seller»

Memorias de un cortesana de la era de Trujillo, del presidente dominicano Joaquín Balaguer, es un libro que desde que fue anunciado despertó la atención del público. El día de la puesta en circulación cientos de personas hicieron fila en la Biblioteca Nacional para adquirir los ejemplares de la primera edición.

La tirada de cinco mil ejemplares se agotó rápidamente y en las semanas siguientes se imprimieron otras ediciones que los lectores adquirieron en las librerías y en las vías de más tránsito de la capital. En los últimos años no hay una publicación de escritor dominicano que supere el éxito de la presente. El autor pidió que la obra se vendiera a 30 pesos (4,78 dólares), pero el interés inusitado fue motivo para que algunos vendedores callejeros se aprovecharan y la distribuyeran hasta a más de 100 pesos dominicanos (16 dólares).

Dos realidades se combinan para convertir a Memorias... en un éxito de librería. Primero, el tema Trujillo, es decir, el período de la dictadura de 30 años (1930-1961) que encabezó Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, siempre es motivo de interés para los dominicanos; y segundo, Balaguer es una de las personas que conoció al dictador, porque fue un colaborador importante del régimen. Además, el autor es un político hermético, un hombre que no es dado a hablar de su vida y mucho menos del núcleo de su pensamiento político.

No faltaron los que pensaron que en las memorias tenían la oportunidad de conocer las cosas que se guarda el hoy jefe del Estado dominicano por quinta ocasión, pero hay hechos que el autor no toca; los deja para la posteridad. Otros los explica con claridad y permiten entender las creencias que comparte con el hombre común: cree en los presentimientos y en las premoniciones.

En la República Dominicana siempre se tuvo la duda de quién redactó el manifiesto que dio a conocer el 23 de febrero de 1930 el denominado Movimiento Cívico, que anunció al país la caída del gobierno de Horacio Vásquez. Se entiende que ésa es la raíz de la dictadura de Trujillo, ya que aunque el líder del movimiento fue el abogado Rafael Estrella Ureña, al poco tiempo Trujillo logró conquistarle a sus seguidores y dejarlo sin poder. En la obra, el autor refiere cómo se dieron los acontecimientos y destaca cómo llegó a ser colaborador de Trujillo, al extremo de que en 1960, cuando se produjo el bloqueo contra el régimen, le confió la presidencia de la república.

De Trujillo, Balaguer anota sus valores y debilidades. Un hombre resentido por los vejámenes que sufrió en la niñez, porque venía de un hogar

––––––––   461   ––––––––

con limitaciones económicas, y que ni siquiera pudo garantizarle una educación adecuada. La pasión del dictador por el culto a la personalidad y el profundo amor por su familia. «Trujillo no admitió jamás la presencia en el escenario en que ejerció su dominio, de ninguna figura que rivalizara con la suya».

De la era de Trujillo, opina Balaguer: «Se trata de una época caracterizada por violentos contrastes y por tremendas contradicciones. Existieron en el hombre que personificó ese período de nuestra historia, grandes virtudes como gobernante juntamente con horrendas deformaciones morales como ser humano. Poseyó en altísimo grado la pasión del organizador que pone orden en el caos y establece las bases en que se asienta el estado moderno en la República Dominicana».

De su propio gobierno de 12 años y 45 días, del lro de julio de 1966 al 16 de agosto de 1978, Balaguer dice que le tocó democratizar al país, «... pero el mérito de esa labor de 12 años, si acaso tiene alguno, corresponde a todos los dominicanos, aun a nuestros propios adversarios, que contribuyeron siempre, con sus críticas implacables, a mantener vivo en mi espíritu el sentimiento del deber y a esforzarme en devolver a la patria, en dedicación y en servicios, lo que de ella recibí en testimonios de confianza y en honores». [Visión, 27 de noviembre de 1989]

George R. McMurray

Colorado State University

«Self-censorship» in Chilean Universities

Chilean students and professors say «a cloud of fear hangs over their institutions» -a legacy inherited from the military overthrow of the Allende government in 1973, when officials ransacked the universities and arrested many faculty and students in an attempt to eliminate «revolutionary» ideas. «All the books that talked of Marx, revolution, or violence were destroyed», Ms. Schalchli (a student) recalls.

Now, as the December 1989 elections approach, «informed students mourn the absence of what one of them calls a political culture».

«To have a change, you need an educational process», says another Magallanes University undergraduate. «But here we are having a change without that process».

According to some students, intimidation is now so deep and ingrained, that professors «are reluctant to express political opinions even in private». [Chronicle of Higher Education, Nov. 1, 1989]

Robert G. Mead, Jr.

University of Connecticut, Emeritus

Latin American Film Notes

The overall condition of the film industry in Latin America is dismal. Currently in Argentina, for example, no new films are being made, and the film business is rumored to be near bankruptcy. Colombia's film industry is also in trouble financially.

In spite of a general turndown in both quantity and quality, the 11th Havana International New Latin American Film Festival took place December 4-18. The event was overshadowed to some extent by developments in Panama. In all, some 200 films were presented in competition. First prize for best film went to Últimas imágenes del naufragio, directed by Argentine Eliseo Subiela. The «Special Jury Prize» went to La nación clandestina, directed by Bolivian Jorge Sanjinés. One interesting development was the apparent reluctance on the part of East European film marketers to purchase or commit to third world films. Clearly, some of the new Latin American films are already outdated and irrelevant, both politically and socially, at least from the East Europeans' point of view.

The Academia Mexicana de Artes y Ciencias Cinematográficas presented its awards on Novem ber 16, for best film work for the year 1988. The «Ariel» for best picture went to Esperanza, a Mexican-Soviet Union co-production. In all, Esperanza captured eight «Arieles», including one for its director, Sergio Olhovich.

Also in Mexico, the construction of a large, state-of-the-art complex, to be called World Pacific Studios, has been announced. The site will be in Baja California, some 25 miles south of Tijuana. The studios will be a Mexican-West German-U. S. joint venture.

Sam L. Slick

University of Southern Mississippi

Latin America out of the Mainstream

The initial issue of the American Enterprise, a journal published by the American Enterprise Institute, contains an extremely pessimistic article by Mark Falcoff on future U. S.-Latin American relations. Entitled «Latin America Alone?», this article views Latin America as moving over the horizon so far as the foreign policy perspectives of the two super powers are concerned. According to Falcoff the communist regimes in Cuba and Nicaragua will eventually be left by the Soviet Union to die on the vine because the Soviets do not need them, nor can they afford them. At the same time America's interest in Latin America is seen as diminishing, though the rhetoric of the U. S. foreign policy establishment obscures this fact.

Falcoff states that whereas formerly the U. S. and Latin America shared a common historical destiny and a certain community of interest, today the question is whether and when to acknowledge that the two halves of the hemisphere have split and are drifting apart. «We should recognize that we are heading for a complex multipolarity in which bilateral relationships (with individual Latin American nations) will be sorted out on a purely issue-to-issue basis. The recent action by the Organization of American states to distance itself from the U. S. intervention in Panama, moreover, demonstrates that our interest will continue to dwindle».

––––––––   462   ––––––––

Falcoff further states that for almost two centuries now Latin America has been a continent of shattered dreams, for Latin Americans and North Americans alike, as liberal-capitalist regimes there have failed to take solid root. Obviously, the U. S. will continue to be helpful to particular governments that make serious efforts at economic and political reforms. But such help will be temporary and contingent. There will be no new «Alliance for Progress». Falcoff concludes that the one exceptional case may be Mexico, since Americans fear being inundated by millions of refugees fleeing chaos. [The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 3, 1990]

George R. McMurray

Colorado State University

What's in an Hispanic name?

A rose by any other name, as Shakespeare says, would smell as sweet. But human names, alas, are odorless, and give rise to different reactions, many of them stereotypical. Even The New York Times, in a Sept. 4, 1989, story on a Chilean television personality, Mario Kreutzberger, expressed surprise at his «unlikely and non-Hispanic name» (his parents fled Nazi Germany in the 1930s). Our leading newspaper, writes Prof. Edna Aizenberg of Marymount Manhattan College (The New York Times, Sept. 21, 1989), should know better. She points out the diversity of surnames in the United States, and reminds us that, contrary to the popular image, not all Hispanics are named Rodríguez or Pérez nor do they have a single cultural-religious heritage. She goes on to stress the great ethnic, cultural and other differences which exist in the Hispanic world:

... Happily, the Hispanic world is much more diverse than many in this country and in Latin America would have it. Aside from the vast native American and important black populations, Latin America is home to children and grandchildren of numerous immigrants -Italians, Germans, Irish, Jews- who went there, as here, seeking refuge and a better life.

Thus it is not uncommon for Latin Americans to have surnames like O'Higgins (the national hero of Chile), Yurkievich, Leoni, Edwards or Kreutzberger. To suggest that any of these is an «unlikely personification» of Hispanic culture is to feed the prejudicial reductionism that Latin Americans in this country and in Latin America have long fought to overcome.

Robert G. Mead, Jr.

University of Connecticut, Emeritus

Artists and Authors

Entrevista com Regina Célia Colônia

Regina Célia Colônia, contemporary Brazilian fiction writer, poet, psychologist, journalist, and diplomat, granted me this interview on November 23, 1987 in Athens, Georgia, where she represented Brazil during the dedication of the Dean Rusk Collection to the UGA library, Colônia, who has published four books, Sumaiama (1974), Canção para o totem (1975), Sob o pé de damasco, sob a chuva (1984), and Os Leões de Luziânia (1985) has received several literary prizes in Brazil. In addition to creative writing, Regina Célia Colônia worked as a journalist for Jornal do Brasil from 1969 through 1970 when she began her diplomatic career in Brasília. She served in Rio de Janeiro, Senegal, and Lisbon. During the Spring quarter of 1988 she was Writer-in-Residence at the University of Georgia. Currently she is Vice-Consul General for Brazil in the Atlanta Consulate.

McClendon: Quais são as correntes literárias atuais ou qual é o «projeto» literário atual no Brasil?

Colônia: Parece-nos que a literatura brasileira está tendo una configuração muito especial em termos de experimentação, de como é que a gente está passando o recado. Não de acordo tom modelos ou com, «compre o livro e siga do primeiro ao décimo capítulo e você terá um bom conto, um bom romance». Digamos que seria mais um enquadramento latinoamericano; sem dúvida somos latinoamericanos, temos uma série de coisas em comum com os outros países irmãos, mas nos parece que um pouco diferente é a nossa temática. Por exemplo, há o título de uma música contemporânea brasileira que é «Essa coisa de pele», e Maria Betânia dizendo: «é importante a gente ter coragem de ser feliz». Enfim, estou citando de cor -«Eu sel que a vida devia ser bem melhor, e será. Mas isso não me impede de dizer que é bonita, é bonita, é bonita». Então a vida ser bonita, em vez de ser aquela coisa, aquele dramalhão terrível, a angústia de estar vivo, aquela coisa terrível que a gente sabe de outras literaturas, e é verdadeiro, e são contradiçőes importantes. Por que é que a gente vai ficar só no dramalhão, só no sofrimento -ser inteligente é ser sofrido, não é? Ou ser sofrido é ser inteligente. Mas muito mais um apostar também nas coisas positivas do Brasil, se não nos falha a memória, está cheio, enfim, em todos os campos, não só do ponto de vista de recursos econômicos, como em termos de recursos emocionais, de invenção e de boniteza. Enfim, de talento.

Então, como é que isso está na literatura? E acho que está bastante: um modelo em que estaríamos descobrindo como é que a gente sente a vida e a partir daí escrevendo, e não comprando o livro como eu dizia no início, tentando fazer o que outros já fizeram.

McClendon: Você se considera uma escritora em exílio? Uma escritora contemporânea brasileira?

Colônia: Acho que sou uma escritora contemporânea brasileira. Se a gente puder, ainda que mal comparando, se lembrar de uma pessoa que eu acho extremamente importante, que é Cortázar. Ele dizia que nunca foi tão Argentino quanto quando escrevendo em Paris. Na medida em que você tem um distanciamento geográfico, você repensa uma série de coisas que quando você está dentro da mexida. É muito difícil perceber o que é que a gente está pensando, o que o resto do povo está pensando

––––––––   463   ––––––––

e, a gente, por conseqüência, está pensando junto. Tenho a impressão de que a gente se pensa melhor quando sai um pouco da posição e consegue olhar de fora. É claro que se você ficar muito tempo longe, você perde -e aí você já passa a olhar para lá com a cabeça do lugar onde você está. O que também pode ser ruim, me parece. Então, é preciso ir lá mais vezes. Enfim, eu acho que sou uma escritora brasileira.

McClendon: Você escreve poesia, contos; qual é o gênero que você gosta mais ou se sente mais à vontade?

Colônia: Good question! Eu acho assim, eu não escrevo poesia porque é poesia, ou conto porque é conto. Eu escrevo poesia quando pinta poesia, e conto quando pinta conto. Ou pelo menos eu tenho a impressão de que é assim. Fazia tempo que eu não escrevia poesia. Recentemente eu me peguei escrevendo poesia. E para mim foi uma novidade ver estas poesias. Quer dizer, para mim é uma notícia a respeito de mim mesma. Eu estava feliz. Aliás, foi quando eu estava preparando um trabalho para apresentar na AATSP em Los Angeles. Sabendo que tinha um horário, que tinha que preparar uma coisa séria, e pensando «introduction, three parallel paragraphs, conclusion», assim de quem sabe o que está fazendo, ou pelo menos está tentando. No meio, de repente, eu não estava mais fazendo aquilo, estava fazendo poesia. Eu estava numa muito boa.

Agora, digamos, se eu pudesse escolher, escolheria parar tudo e terminar o romance. Mas e onde é que a gente vai ter tempo?

McClendon: Como você elabora um conto?

Colônia: Eu tenho uma proposta de um conto, e esta proposta em geral, para mim, é uma arquitetura. Tem volume, tem forma, tem a parte da frente, tem a parte de trás, tem a janela do segundo andar, enfim, tem uma coisa bastante construída. E dentro desta arquitetura é que entram alguns elementos que podem ser os poéticos. Devem lembrar também que eu venho do jornalismo, então, para mim, esta questão de dividir os contos em blocos vem muito de quando vocé faz uma matéria de jornal -você não pode perder o leitor. O título de um artigo é uma coisa muito importante, é o que chama o leitor para ler, daí você vai com ele para o lide, depois você vai para o sub-lide, depois você vai para aquele primeiro bloco, e em seguida do primeiro bloco, você tem que ter um entretítulo, que vai levar para o segundo, que vai levar até a conclusão do artigo. Digamos que eu ponho isso muito dentro dos meus contos, e isso é uma parte de arquitetura também de como é que você constrói, de como é que de certa forma você está dividindo a coisa com o o leitor. O que eu estou tentando fazer escrevendo é permitir que o leitor entre na arquitetura, reconheça mais ou menos o geral do campo, e parta para onde ele quer.

McClendon: Isso é interessante. Autran Dourado disse uma vez que o que ele gosta de fazer é uma planta baixa do conto ou do romance, porque ele queria ser carpinteiro, ser arquiteto. Me parece pela maneira que você está falando, que vocês são mais é cartógrafos.

Colônia: Pode ser. É, sem dúvida, um terreno, se você está falando geográficamente; tanto você pode construir a planta baixa, o «blueprint» de uma casa, ou de um edifício, como você pode construir um mapa.

Se você leva uma pessoa para conhecer a sua casa, por exemplo, e, de repente, entre um cômodo e outro, a pessoa diz assim: «Ah, mas aquilo, que interessante!» e ela sai andando na sua frente, ainda é a sua casa; não é o que você tinha programado, você achou que você chegaria com a pessoa na sala da frente, depois mostraria a outra sala e aquela mesa tão bonita; e depois não sei o quê, e talvez o seu diploma na parede; e, de repente, a pessoa resolveu que a flor que está saindo aqui da janela é muito mais interessante. Pergunta de onde vem, mas quando -carambola- como é que foi, como é que você plantou, de onde você trouxe? E vocês podem partir, discutir que é «star fruit» ou não é «star fruit»; ou como é que se faz... enfim, o diploma ficou na parede porque na verdade, a carambola passou a ser mais interessante, muito mais pertinente, muito mais saborosa. Pode ser uma «blueprint» no início, vocé tem poder, mas o leitor tem todo o espaço para escolher entre uma coisa e outra e, se você lembrar; de vez em quando eu pergunto coisas: «Você não acha? ou você viu isso? ou você conhece aquilo?» Por exemplo, «Formosa foi com Dez-Déz pra aquele lugar lá na França, e ela foi por uma sadia sofisticação, ou você não acha que foi por sofisticação?» Isto está no conto, olhando para o personagem, eu acho que Formosa foi com Dez-Déz por uma sadia sofisticação. Do meu ponto de vista de olhar para o personagem. Mas você tem todo o direito de achar que não foi, porque ela realmente estava gamada nele e foi, não tinha sofisticação nenhuma nisso. Então, eu acho que sobre este ponto de vista, salvaguardar a liberdade do leitor, para mim, é importante. E eu penso que brasileiro entende isso. A gente aceitar as pessoas sem um «approach» moralista, sobre quem é a outra pessoa ou o que ela deveria fazer, ou a minha verdade é melhor do que a sua. Sabe, pode ser que até eu esteja equivocada, vocês me digam se não concordam com isto, mas eu sinto muito o brasileiro como alguém que vai e pergunta: «Puxa, você vote chegou, como é que é, e como é que é lá?» É este tipo de coisa, e não dizer para pessoa como é que deveria ser. O que em certas outras culturas eu acho que é verdade, não é? Sabe, mesmo que sejam culturas de outra raiz, mas que ainda estejam atendendo àquela raiz. E isso vem muito certinho, muito dentro do quadrinho como é que tem que ser. Tenho a sensação de que a gente não faz muito assim. Ou pelo menos espero que não.

Eu penso muito que a literatura é uma investigação. Outro día eu estava assistindo um programa de TV. Estavam dizendo que a raiz de ser jornalista era procurar o mistério das coisas. Eu sempre achei que eu tinha escolhido trabalhar onde eu trabalho em termos de Itamarati, trabalhar em psicologia, e trabalhar em jornal, não tanto talvez o Itamarati, mas mais psicologia e jornal, como ter a liberdade de chegar a alguém e fazer perguntas. Olha, aqui é a Regina do Jornal do Brasil e eu estou interessada em saber isto. Então está ótimo. Nessa altura, é uma coisa que garante o teu «approach» da pessoa e a pessoa acha que está lidando com o Jornal do Brasil e não com você. O que é ótimo sob certos aspectos, porque você tem a liberdade para fazer mil perguntas, enfim, elaborar sobre tal e tal. E, de repente, quando eu estava assistindo o programa na TV, eu pensei que não era bem perguntar às pessoas, era mais o mistério das coisas. Porque é mais fundo, é uma outra história. Eu penso que todas estas coisas também estão em literatura. De como você mexe no próprio mistério e, a partir daí, de certa forma tem acesso ao mistério do Outro. Porque, afinal, os mistérios não são tão desconexos. Eles têm a ver com uma família de mistérios. E a partir daí então você volta com alguma coisa criptografada, com alguma coisa que veio lá do mistério. Você vem e diz: «Olha, eu cheguei no mistério, e a minha visão do mistério é esta». Então a pessoa lendo pode talvez ter um acesso

––––––––   464   ––––––––

melhor ao seu próprio mistério. Eu acho isto tudo tão gostoso!

McClendon: Como você pode reconciliar a sua vida artística com a diplomática?

Colônia: Eu não consigo! Entende, é muito stress. É, e sempre foi. O que é que a gente faz; a gente para um, faz o outro, para um e faz o outro, e fica sempre devendo. Porque realmente não dá. Tem horas que vocé não pode sentar para escrever porque você tem que fazer outra coisa. Você tem que se mudar, você tem que juntar as suas coisas todas, que é uma coisa de quem trabalha nesta vida de caixeiro viajante de luxo, não é? Então, você tem que realmente pegar a sua casa inteira com tudo que tem, tentando não perder nenhum livro para trás e se mudar e chegar lá. As coisas às vezes estão aos cacos. Tem que ligar a conta de telefone de novo, ligar a eletricidade, saber onde é que tem que entrar com o carro para chegar no trabalho, conhecer todas as pessoas daquele lugar, e isso demanda tempo. Enfim, você tem que se adaptar. É uma coisa que toma tempo, estressa. Por outro lado, eu acho que estas coisas todas difíceis, por serem divergentes elas se enriquecen mutuamente. Por exemplo, se não fosse por isto, eu não estaria aquí hoje. E, de cerca forma, um contribui para o outro, e as coisas se potenciam. Mas é árduo, não é fácil.

McClendon: Quais são os temas que você gosta de usar nas suas poesias, nos seus contos?

Colônia: Depende. Quando, por exemplo, eu estava escrevendo sobre os índios, isso é, o meu primeiro livro Sumaimana, era um tema principal meu. Escreví sobre os índios em geral do Brasil e da América do Sul. No tempo em que eu escrevi isto, e já faz um bocado de tempo, não se falava de índio, era feio. Era muito mal educado. Índio era um povo que quanto menos a gente falasse, mais isto subia no currículo. E nessa época, eu não estava a fim de achar isso, porque de infância eu morei no Ecuador, em Quito. Lá eu conviví um bocado com os índios quechuas, que são os incas. Isso para mim tem um valor muito grande na minha vida. Eu acho que os índios são muito importantes, do ponto de vista antropológico, do ponto de vista da linguagem, do ponto de vista de cultura. Só que isto era muito mal educado ser dito numa certa época no Brasil. E a partir de um certo momento, eu comecei a batalhar, digamos, a minha experiência dos índios através da poesia. Eu acho que fazia poesia desde guriazinha, mas nesta época eu estava batalhando mais este tipo de coisa. Então isto era um tema para mim. Então os termos tinham muito a ver con esta realidade. Havia, como há, muitos termos indígenas. Tanto indígenas brasileiros como indígenas incas. O nome do livro Sumaimana é un termo quechua, é um aumentativo de «sumac», que é «bonito», e que seria um aumentativo em cima do aumentativo «mais bonito que o bonito», ou «mais lindo que o lindo». Então eu chamo os índios como primeiro habitante do continente de «Sumaimana», isto é, aquele que é mais bonito que o bonito. É tão bonito que não dá para você dizer o quão bonito ele é. Ele é mais do que tudo isso. Como o negro também é muito importante, só que não é uma coisa na qual eu mexi, como o branco europeu é muito importante em termos da gente. Quer dizer, nós somos brasileiros por quanto a uma série de realidades que contribuíram para nós sermos as pessoas que somos. Talvez por isso mesmo a gente não esteja a fim de dizer como é que faz, porque, na verdade, entrou tanta informação na nossa formação, que a gente não tem como dizer que não é assim ou, que não é não sei como. De qualquer manera, alguma coisa está ali na nosa cultura também.

McClendon: Você sente influência de fora por estar em outras culturas?

Colônia: Eu acho que uma das coisas que a gente tem de pasar com muito cuidado é o fato da gente deixar de falar brasileiro quando a gente está muito tempo fora da terra. Eu me lembro de dizer, outro dia, a um amigo meu que eu quero muito bem -eu servi com ele em Lisboa e atualmente ele está no Brasil- eu me lembro de dizer, «poxa, que saudades suas»; e ele me dise o seguinte: «também eu». E eu, brasileira, do Rio, falando absolutamente igual a qualquer um de nós, mas essa construção «também eu» é tão portuguesa, não é? Não tem nada a ver, mas eu sei por que, de onde veio. Nós vivemos em Lisboa e eu, quando saí de lá, dizia «pois» com uma facilidade única. Terminava minhas frases com «pois», sabe? Porque realmente era agradável para mim, era confortável usar o «pois». Acho que enriquece, mas, por outro lado, também é perigoso. Porque de repente a gente começa a construir uma coisa que já não é mais o espelho da cultura. Está enriquecida entre aspas, como outras coisas que para nós é de raiz, mas que realmente não tem tanto a ver. Mas estar dentro de outras culturas enriquece pelo contato pessoal que é muito importante.

Carmen C. McClendon

The University of Georgia

Entrevista a Carlos Cerda

Carlos Cerda, dramaturgo, ensayista, poeta, cuentista y novelista chileno, nació en Santiago en 1942. Exiliado por doce años después del golpe militar de 1973 en Chile, obtuvo el doctorado en literatura en la Universidad de Berlín. Cerda también ha escrito guiones para el cine y radio que le valieron importantes premios: el Kunstpreis de la República Democrática Alemana en 1979 por el film Abril tiene treinta días y el Premio de la Unión Europea de Radiodifusión por el radioteatro Un tulipán, una piedra, una espada, escrito en colaboración con Omar Saavedra. De nuevo en Chile se integra como autor al teatro Ictus. Su obra dramática Lo que está en el aire (1985) alcanza gran éxito en Santiago de Chile, Montevideo, Nueva York y Montreal. Acaba de publicar un libro de cuentos Por culpa de nadie (1987) donde se refiere a los acontecimientos del 11 de septiembre de 1973 en Chile. La entrevista fue grabada y se realizó en Santiago el martes 18 de octubre de 1987. Se presenta abreviada.

Inés Dölz-Blackburn:

La única obra de teatro suya que conozco es Lo que está en el aire. ¿Tiene otras produciones teatrales y podría darme un breve sumario de ellas si es que las tiene?

Carlos Cerda:

Bueno. La primera obra teatral mía se estrenó en la República Democrática Alemana en 1975. Lo que está en el aire es la segunda; y la tercera obra, con participación de los demás compañeros del teatro Ictus, en creación colectiva, se acaba de estrenar en Santiago hace un par de meses y se llama Residencia en las nubes.

IDB: ¿Qué me puede decir de su primera obra de teatro?

CC: Es tan difícil... Se llama La noche del soldado. Son

––––––––   465   ––––––––

los acontecimientos de Chile de 1973, el golpe que derrocó el gobierno de Salvador Allende.

IDB: ¿Cómo se gestó Lo que está en el aire?

CC: Lo que está en el aire fue originalmente un radio-teatro que se transmitió en Alemania en 1981 y que en 1982 ganó el premio de la Unión Europea de Radiodifusión como el mejor radio-teatro del año transmitido en Europa y también el de la mejor producción de la República Democrática Alemana. Fue transmitida en catorce países de Europa. Cuando yo volví de Chile en el año de 1984, el director de teatro y cine, Claudio di Girólamo, manifestó su deseo de llevar al cine esta historia que en su título original se llamaba Un tulipán, una piedra, una espada. Se realizó la película con bastante éxito y muy buena crítica y fue estrenada a comienzos de 1985. Con posterioridad a esto, hubo interés de parte de Delfina Guzmán y de Nissim Sharim, directores del teatro ICTUS, de hacer una versión teatral de esta misma historia. Los ensayos de la obra se iniciaron en el mes de junio de 1985, y el estreno tuvo lugar el 6 de enero de 1986. Fue un largo período de trabajo que condujo a la transformación esencial del texto original para la radio.

IDB: Lo que está en el aire tiene muchos aspectos que podemos estudiar. Uno que considero importante es que es una obra de protesta, en el sentido de que se eleva en un grito de protesta de tipo universal que traspasa fronteras. Desde este punto de vista, ¿qué otras obras de este tipo se pueden mencionar en Chile?

CC: Bueno. Hay un importante desarrollo de la dramaturgia en nuestro país en estos años oscuros de dictadura. Desde luego, hay experiencias de creación colectiva en tomo a un dramaturgo, a un autor. En tal caso, yo mencionaría Tres Marías y una Rosa (1979) de David Benavente. Juan Rodrigán es también un autor importante en Chile hoy día. Yo aprecio mucho el tono poético de su lenguaje y la poesía que late en el aparente naturalismo de su obra. Pienso que Marco Antonio de la Parra es un dramaturgo que ha hecho una aportación importantísima con las tres obras de él que se han estrenado en nuestro país. Me parece que todas ellas, de una forma u otra, encierran el contenido a que Ud. alude cuando se refiere al teatro de protesta, es decir, ese grito que tenga la capacidad de transcender la mera denuncia cotidiana.

IDB: ¿Cuál es el mensaje que Ud. quiso impartir al escribir la obra? Porque el lector puede optar un tipo de mensaje diferente al del autor.

CC: Nosotros no quisimos transmitir ningún mensaje. Quisimos reflexionar sobre el miedo en Chile, y la obra es la reflexión sobre el miedo. Pero al iniciarse esta reflexión, nos fuimos dando cuenta de que hay una serie de preguntas a propósito de este tema del miedo, cuestiones que iban más allá de la mera violencia policial o política, esto tenía incluso dimensiones filosóficas muy serias. El miedo ha alterado la naturaleza del chileno; el miedo ha alterado nuestro ser más esencial, ha motivado nuestra conducta, nos ha dado dimensiones distintas, incluso del tiempo y de la realidad. Y todas estas cosas pueden manejar, de una manera, el proceso de redacción del texto. La pesadilla es la forma más habitual en el tratamiento de las distintas situaciones que se van dardo a lo largo de la pieza. Tiene un tono de pesadilla la primera escena por la presencia avasallante de la música de Mahler, que incluso apaga la comprensión del texto de la obra. Es una representación de pesadilla la escena en la cual Julia, la mujer del secuestrado, recuerda el momento en que ella le pide que se vaya de su casa. Es una pesadilla, la permanente irrupción de esos dos hombres que junto con la azafata van cenando de una manera, así increíble, a este numeroso grupo de víctimas. Es decir, hay en la idea básica y en la puesta, el intento de representar una alteración, el intento de poner en escena un desquicio, una anomalía -insisto- de lo que había sido nuestra forma habitual de ver y vernos a nosotros mismos, de modo que esta reflexión inicial llevase un mensaje. Fue esto lo que motivó la búsqueda, este preguntarse acera del miedo, de su origen, de sus consecuencias, de sus efectos, de la forma que nos alteraba a nosotros mismos y nos transformaba en un extremo de lo más esencial, en nuestra propia autenticidad.

IDB: Dada la situación política actual, ¿planteó muchos problemas la puesta en escena de Lo que está en el aire?

CC: Planteó muchos problemas. Hubo amenazas directas a la vida de algunos integrantes del grupo. Durante varios días se amenazó de muerte a Delfina Guzmán, a Nissim Sharin y a mí. Llevamos este asunto -había prueba directa- ante la justicia. El tribunal de justicia nos concedió vigilancia policial durante algunos días. Nuestras viviendas estaban vigiladas por las fuerzas del orden, por los carabineros. Pero después de esto, y justamente porque no hicimos mayor cuestión de la amenaza -la amenaza nos culminaba a no realizar el estreno de la obra- el estreno se realizó. El estreno fue un éxito y fue un éxito de crítica, además; incluso de prensa de orientación derechista. Este fue el caso, por ejemplo de críticos del diario La Segunda, quienes tuvieron una concepción, una opinión muy, muy juiciosa sobre la abra y sobre la puesta en escena, de modo que fue, a pesar de la amenaza, y por encima de ella, un éxito el hecho de que esta obra se hubiese podido representar en Santiago, y que luego hubiese tenido el éxito que tendría, aún mayos y de resonancia tremenda, en Montevideo, cuando participamos en la segunda muesca internacional del teatro; y posteriormente, en septiembre del año pasado, en Nueva York y en Montreal. En Nueva York, dentro del marco del Festival del teatro latino; y en Montreal, en representaciones que se hicieron posterioridad a ese festival.

IDB: ¿Por cuánto tiempo se representó la obra?

CC: Un año.

IDB: Debe de haber sido duro para los participantes ir cada noche a actuar sin saber qué iba a pasar...

CC: Claro que sí.

IDB: Lo conozco también a Ud. por una colección de cuentos: Por culpa de nadie (1987). Creo no equivocarme al creer que hay muchas vivencias de Carlos Cerda en algunos de estas cuentos. ¿O es simplemente ficción?

CC: Son, como todos los cuentos, manifestaciones imaginarias de vivencias muy íntimas. Uno nunca sabe dónde termina la vivencia y dónde empieza la imaginación. La imaginación es, tal vez, parte de esa vivencia. Nace anclada en ella, pero efectivamente,

––––––––   466   ––––––––

yo no hubiese podido escribir ninguno de esos cuentos si no hubiese vivido lo que he vivido en los últimos altos.

IDB: ¿Cómo le gustaría que Carlos Cerda fuese recordado como escritor?

CC: Como un escritor que quiso decir siempre la verdad.

Inés Dölz-Blackburn

University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

Anterior Indice Siguiente