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For instance, she says to one of her campesinos, with considerable ironic effect:

-Tú eres de los de mucho ruido y pocas nueces.

Obras completas, Madrid, Aguilar, 1970, IV, p. 485. (N. del A.)



See William H. Shoemaker, Los artículos de Galdós en «La Nación», 1865-1866, 1868, Ínsula, Madrid, 1972. (N. del A.)



This bibliography is reprinted from Benito Pérez Galdós: A Selective Annotated Bibliography, published in 1975 by The Scarecrow Press, Inc., Metuchen, N. J. The author and the publishers have graciously granted their permission to reproduce it for this commemorative number. Professor Woodbridge has supplemented his original entries with new material. A review of Professor Woodbridge's Bibliography can be found on pp. 131-33 of this volume. (N. del E.)



[El aparato de notas del original aparece al final del artículo, en las páginas 107 y 108. (N. del E.)]



Georg Lukács, The Historical Novel (Boston: Beacon Press, 1963), p. 19. (N. del A.)



The idea that costumbrismo was an antecedent of the realist novel in Spain may be somewhat misleading. Costumbrismo in some authors (Fernán Caballero, Estébanez Calderón, Pereda) is a nostalgic record of the disappearing picturesque scenes and types of the countryside viewed from an essentially conservative or even reactionary perspective. There are other costumbristas (Larra and to some extent Mesonero) who concentrate on viewing the transformation occuring in Madrid with an eye more often critical and ironical than nostalgic or arcadian. There is a noticeably more realistic or modern element in what has been called «crítica de costumbres» because of the future-oriented aspect implicit in a criticism which purports to shape a social change which has been necessarily accepted as part of the scene (Mesonero) or welcomed (Larra). In the light of the idea presented in this paper the distinction I would make between costumbrismo and the realist novel is that the former lacks that consciousness of the rhythms of a changing society which is the essence of the realist novel so that costumbrista writing more often results in static tableaux. Most costumbrista writing also lacks the positive ideological projection towards the future characteristic of the episodios nacionales, although it begins to appear in the writing of Larra. (N. del A.)



Rene Wellek and Austin Warren in their textbook Theory of Literature (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1956) divide the literary theory into «intrinsic» and «extrinsic» studies, the study of «literature and society» is put in the «extrinsic» category. In my view the societal factor in the development of this historical genre as well as in its factual and ideological content is inextricable from the total effect of the literary work. (N. del A.)



Manuel Milá y Fontanals, Obras IV (Barcelona: Verdaguer, 1892), p. 8. (N. del A.)



Marcelino Menéndez Pelayo, Obras completas, Vol. X, p. 149. Menéndez Pelayo repeats the generalization about Barcelona:

«Cuando se haga la historia del influjo de Walter Scott, que fue mucho más extenso que el de Byron en el romanticismo español, habrá que señalar a Barcelona como uno de los principales focos de esta literatura, no porque se escribiesen allí más novelas y leyendas históricas que en otras partes, sino porque el pensamiento poético de Walter Scott penetró más que ningún otro en el alma de los artistas y de los críticos y aun en la afición común de los lectores; y a cada paso se encuentra su huella». (N. del A.)



Quoted in Maurice Bardeche, Balzac romancier (París: Librairie Plan, 1944), p. 148. (N. del A.)