Selecciona una palabra y presiona la tecla d para obtener su definición.



Ibid., pp. 789-794.



Ibid., pp. 794-795.



Ibid., pp. 745-746.



This essay is a retouched version of the script for my presentation at the University of Southern California's Symposium on Galdós. As such, it purports to be no more than an initiation into the subject at hand. For the invitation to participate in that event and thus for the stimulus that led to these thoughts, I am grateful to Theodore A. Sackett and Joaquín Gimeno.



Wolfgang Kayser, The Grotesque in Art and Literature, trans. Ulrich Weisstein (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966), p. 100.



The Grotesque (London: Methuen, 1972), p. 8.



Estudios galdosianos (Zaragoza: Librería General, 1953), p. 20. The references that follow in this paragraph are to: Vicente Gaos, «Notas sobre la técnica de Galdós», Ínsula, No. 82 (1952), 5; reprinted in Claves de literatura española (Madrid: Guadarrama, 1971), I, 453-61; Juan Pedro Quiñonero, «Propuestas para una revisión galdosiana», Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos, No. 250-52 (1970-71), 681; Carlos Clavería, «Galdós y los demonios», in Homenaje a J. A. Van Praag (Amsterdam: Librería Plus Ultra, 1956), pp. 32-37; Gustavo Correa, «El diabolismo en las novelas de Pérez Galdós», Bulletin Hispanique, 65 (1963), 284-96; Domingo Pérez Minik, Novelistas españoles de los siglos XIX y XX (Madrid: Guadarrama, 1957), p. 91; Michael Nimetz, Humor in Galdós (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1968); Peter G. Earle, «La interdependencia de los personajes galdosianos», Cuadernos Hispanoamericanos, No. 250-52 (1970-71), 118; Mariano Baquero Goyanes, «Las caricaturas literarias de Galdós», in Perspectivismo y contraste (Madrid: Gredos, 1963), pp. 43-82.



B. J. Zeidner Bäuml, «The Mundane Demon: The Bourgeois Grotesque in Galdós' Torquemada en la hoguera», Symposium, 24 (1970), 158-65.



«La prosa de Solana: estética de lo grotesco», Papeles de Son Armadans, No. 65 (1961), 165-80; «Antonio Machado and the Grotesque», Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 22 (1963), 269-76; «The Grotesque in Valle-Inclán», in A. N. Zahareas, ed., Ramón del Valle-Inclán. An Appraisal of His Life and Works (New York: Las Américas, 1968), pp. 493-539; «Grotesque Portraits in Torres Villarroel», Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 45 (1968), 16-37; «Bécquer and the Romantic Grotesque», PMLA, 83 (1968), 312-31; «Grotesque Elements in the Pastoral Novel», in A. D. Kossoff and J. Amor y Vázquez, eds., Homenaje a William L. Fichter (Madrid; Castalia, 1971), pp. 319-28; «Gracián and the Moral Grotesque». Hispanic Review, 39 (1971), 30-48; «Espronceda and the Romantic Grotesque», Studies in Romanticism, 11 (1972), 94-112.



I am particularly indebted to Kayser's book, which, confusing and incomplete as it may be, nevertheless is indispensable, for it establishes once and for all that the grotesque must be considered an esthetic category. I have also discovered welcome short cuts in Thomson's little manual and many cogent ideas in Michael Steig, «Defining the Grotesque: An Attempt at Synthesis», Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 29 (1970), 253-60. The most valuable history of the term is Frances K. Barasch's The Grotesque: A Study of Meanings (The Hague: Mouton, 1971). Finally, I have had recourse to sources such as Victor Hugo's well-known «Preface» to Cromwell; Thomas Wright's A History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art (London: Virtue Brothers, 1865); Arthur Clayborough's The Grotesque in English Literature (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965); and Lee Byron Jennings' The Ludicrous Demon. Aspects of the Grotesque in German Post-Romantic Prose (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1963).