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Ferdinand Brunetière, «L'Impressionisme dans le roman», Le Roman naturaliste (Paris: Calmann-Lévy, 1896), p. 88. The article, which first appeared on 15 November 1879 in the Revue des deux mondes, surprisingly, deals with the impressionist tendencies of Alphonse Daudet!



See, for example, Michel Benamou, et al., «Symposium en Literary Impressionism», Yearbook of Comparative and General Literature, No. 17 (1968), 40-68.



Calvin S. Brown, in «Symposium on Literary Impressionism», p. 54. Appropriately in this, Doña Berta is novella-length, while Tristana in its 182 pages is extremely condensed in the passage of time and events. Dulce y sabrosa, the least daring of the three aesthetically, is, on the other hand, of average length as nineteenth-century novels go.



On Cézanne's innovativeness: «The frame ceases to be a window looking out upon la belle nature, or even la vraie nature of either Barbizon or the Impressionists; it is part of the tableau it frames a canvas, or better, it is the boundary of the tableau so that, in a certain sense, it separates the tableau from nature» (Rémy Saisselin, in «Symposium on Literary Impressionism», p. 62).



See my «La función del arte y la historia en Doña Berta, de Clarín». Also: Boris Uspensky, A Poetics of Composition, tr. Valentina Zavarin and Susan Wittig (Berkeley: Univ. of California Press, 1973).



Maurice Denis, «Définition du néo-traditionnisme», Théories 1890-1910. Du Symbolisme et de Gauguin vers un nouvel ordre classique, 4th ed. (Paris: L. Rouart et J. Watelin Éditeurs, 1920), p. 1. This article originally appeared in Art et critique, 23 and 30 August 1890.



Benito Pérez Galdós, Tristana (Madrid: Alianza, 1980), p. 10. All future references will be taken from this edition.



See J. J. Alfieri, «El arte pictórico en las novelas de Galdós», Anales Galdosianos, 3 (1968), 79-86; Carmen Bravo-Villasante, Galdós visto por sí mismo, 2nd ed. (Madrid: Emesa, 1976), pp. 139-43; William H. Shoemaker, The Novelistic Art of Galdós, I (Valencia: Albatrós Ediciones, 1980), pp. 22-25, 197-201. For examples of Galdosian art criticism, see: «La Pintura» (dated 28 June 1894), in Arte y Crítica, Obras inéditas, II, ed. Alberto Ghiraldo (Madrid: Renacimiento, 1923), pp. 9-24; and «La Exposición de París» (dated 14 May 1889), in Cronicón (1886-1890), Obras inéditas, VII (Madrid: Renacimiento, 1923), pp. 211-17. The Casa-Museo Pérez Galdós in Las Palmas possesses thirteen albums filled by Galdós with «material gráfico», cuttings from various illustrated European journals (Alfieri, p. 79).



Benito Pérez Galdós, Memorias de un desmemoriado, Obras completas, VI, 5th ed. (Madrid: Aguilar, 1968), p, 1672.



Jacinto Octavio Picón, «París y la Exposición», El Imparcial, 1 and 13 September 1878. In both these articles, which deal specifically with the Japanese exhibit, the future author of Dulce y sabrosa praises Japan for turning itself into a modern nation. William Leonard Schwartz observes that «the year 1878 was very important in the history of 'Japonisme' because of the richness and variety of the exhibits of Japanese art displayed at the Paris Exposition» (The Imaginative Interpretation of the Far East in Modern French Literature 1800-1925 [Paris: Librairie Ancienne Honoré Champion, 1927], p. 101). There was also an exhibit of Japanese prints in 1890 at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris.