Selecciona una palabra y presiona la tecla d para obtener su definición.



Melchor Fernández Almagro, Historia política de la España contemporánea. 2. 1885-1897, 2nd ed. (Madrid: Alianza, 1969), pp. 58-61. For a detailed and contemporary appreciation of the 1888 Barcelona Exposición Universal, see José Yxart, «La Exposición Universal», in his El año pasado, vol. 4 (Barcelona: Librería Española de López, 1889), pp. 163-388.



Maurice E. Chernowitz, Proust and Painting (N. Y.: International Univ. Press, 1945), p. 12; Schwartz, pp. 101, 103.



Frank Whitford, Japanese Prints and Western Painters (N. Y.: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1977), p. 23.



Louis Aubert, Les Matres de l'Estampe japonaise (Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1914), p. 261.



Carmen Bravo-Villasante also observes that Galdós was even influenced by «la luz de Sorolla, cuya técnica impresionista se refleja en algunas escenas de Tristana» (Galdós visto por sí mismo, p. 142).



See my «Art, Memory, and the Human in Galdós's Tristana», Kentucky Romance Quarterly (31: 2[1984], 207-20). Tristana's unreal appearance and remoteness of self are akin to such literary and visual representations as Baudelaire's «sphinx incompris» («J'unis un coeur de neige à la blancheur des cygnes», from «La Beauté»), Flaubert's «Hérodias» (or Mallarmé's similar image in «Hérodiade»), and the fin de siècle iconography of the feminine as seen in Gustave Moreau, Fernand Khnopff, and many other painters of the period.



See Whitford, p. 172, who observes that cloisonnisme, as manifested in such artists as Louis Anquetin, Émile Bernard and even Gauguin, had its origins in folk art and Japanese prints. The earlier Hispanic example of Mariano Fortuny's art (1838-74) also comes to mind.



Tristana also functions as the miniaturized version of the narrator-artist within the text itself, which is to say as a kind of Gidean «mise en abyme» (see «Art, Memory, and the Human in Galdós's Tristana»).



This is not to deny the inherent ambiguity and problematic nature of reality in Alas's novella, but simply to stress that in Doña Berta art redeems -in Tristana it does not.



Emilia Pardo Bazán, La cuestión palpitante, 4th ed. (Madrid: Pérez Dubrull, 1891), pp. 268-269.