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«Throughout the summer of that year 1909 Republicans and Socialists had built up an agitation against Maura's call-up of reservists for a minor campaign in Morocco. The Monarchy was denounced as a monster full of pus, sending the poor of Spain to defend Moroccan mining concessions [...] The government was particularly worried about Barcelona». (Carr, pág. 483.) Según los defensores de Maura «[...] the 'events of 1909' [...] marked, the first step in a process of concession to the revolution from below which would end, in April 1931, with the overthrow of the monarchy. Thus the crisis of 1909, to Maura and his supporters, became the watershed of political life». (Ídem).



La Esfera (Madrid), Año II, núms. 86 y 87, 21 y 28 de Agosto de 1915, pp. [4]-[5] y [22].



Ricardo Gullón, Galdós novelista moderno (Taurus, Madrid, 1960); Nueva edición (Gredos, Madrid, 1966). All page references are given to the later edition.



B. Pérez Galdós, Miau, Edición, Estudio Preliminar y Bibliografía por Ricardo Gullón. Ediciones de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, Revista de Occidente, Madrid, 1957.



We will use the Spanish translation by José Escobar (Madrid, Gredos, 1963).



This process is particularly well analyzed in these two books: R. G. Collingwood, Idea of History (New York, 1956), or K. Lowith, Meaning in History (Chicago, 1949).



See J. F. Montesinos, «Notas sueltas sobre la fortuna de Balzac en España», Revue de Littérature Comparée, XXIV (1950), pp. 309-338.



This is expressed by Galdós in his comments on Spain's guerrillas, in El Empecinado.



The clearest example of this intention is found in the author's overt historical parallels in La desheredada, the first of his Novelas contemporáneas.



On this and other aspects of Galdós' sources see «Apostillas a Los 'Episodios nacionales' de B. P. G. de Hans Hinterhäuser» in this same issue.