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ArribaAbajoA selective annotated bibliography of Doña Perfecta163

Hensley C. Woodbridge

1. J. E. Varey, Doña Perfecta (London, Grant and Cutler in association with Tamesis Books, 1971), 84 pp. (Critical guides to Spanish text, l), is the fullest discussion yet written on this novel. Its ten chapters are: Introduction; The opening chapter; Motives and attitudes; The development of the situation; The characters, The conflict: social criticism; The conflict: moral aspects; The conflict: political issues; Stylistic features; Conclusion. There is a brief bibliographical note, pp. 82-84.

Varey finds that «Doña Perfecta is, then, a novel which reflects the political and ideological struggles of its day; to use a modern phrase, it can be described as 'littérature engagée'. At the same time, it is the product of a young writer who is still endeavouring to find his own style, not completely sure of himself, and yet a work which foreshadows in many respects the great novels of Galdós' mature period» (p. 9).

2. Little has been written concerning the sources of this novel. Alexander Haggerty Krappe, «The sources of B. Pérez Galdós, Doña Perfecta, cap. vi», Philological Quarterly, 7 (1928), 303-06, finds that Heine's essay Zur Geschichte der Religion und Philosophie in Deutschland and Lucretius' De rerum natura are sources for D. José de Rey's speech in chapter six of this novel.

3. Vernon A. Chamberlin and Jack Weiner, «Galdós' Doña Perfecta and Turgenev's Fathers and Sons: two interpretations of the conflict between generations», PMLA, 86 (1971), 19-24 (translated by Felipe Díaz Jimeno as «Doña Perfecta, de Galdós, y Padres e hijos, de Turgueneff: dos interpretaciones del conflicto entre generaciones», Benito Pérez Galdós [1973], pp. 231-243), indicate that «Scholars have long noted the influence of Russian writers, particularly Tolstoy and Dostoievsky, in the novels of Benito Pérez Galdós. However, in an interview granted to the Russian journalist Ia. Pavlovskii in 1884 (only recently published in the West), Galdós acknowledges an indebtedness to an earlier Russian master, Ivan Turgenev, referring to him as 'my great teacher'. A close reading of Turgenev's Fathers and Sons and Galdós' Doña Perfecta suggests that the Russian masterpiece may have inspired the well-known Spanish work. The novels share a common theme (the conflict between generations), and in each the hero is a young man trained in science who makes an extended visit to the provinces.   —92→   In both works the protagonist dies a tragic, untimely death. There are other important similarities between the two books, but significant differences as well, particularly in the authors' attitudes toward the conflict itself. Galdós believed completely in Pepe Rey's cause, while Turgenev was ambivalent about the forces his hero represented; in tone and structure each novel reflects its author's feelings. There appears to be no doubt that Galdós knew Fathers and Sons and made use of certain of its ideas in creating his own independent and highly personal interpretation of the conflict between generations» (abstract).

4. Several critics discuss whether or not the novel should be considered a melodrama. Roberto G. Sánchez, «Doña Perfecta and the histrionic projection of character», Revista de estudios hispánicos, 3 (1969), 175-90, and Rodolfo Cardona in his introduction to Doña Perfecta (Long Island City: Anaya-Las Américas, 1974), pp. 17-47, present arguments on this point.

Sánchez notes that numerous critics consider Doña Perfecta's dramatic quality to be among its most striking features (pp. 175-76). According to him «The present study proposes to examine the nature of this dramatic quality from somewhat different premises: that the dramatic force acknowledged by all resides primarily in the title character, that of Doña Perfecta, and that the novel does not manage to avoid melodrama but rather glories in it» (p. 176).

He finds the novel «melodramatic in intent» (p. 177) and further states that «indeed, melodrama is the guiding spirit of the novel. It is there in the suspense with which Galdós works toward a confrontation of the two antagonistic forces» (p. 177). His views, based on several portions of the novels, are ably argued.

5. Cardona's introduction is an excellent and useful one and is intended primarily for students who are reading this novel. He finds that the novel «smacks of melodrama» (p. 18) and elsewhere he speaks of «the danger of a melodramatic situation» being «avoided» (p. 22). His introduction presents the student with a summary of recent criticism of the novel.

6. Josette Blanquat, «De l'histoire au roman Doña Perfecta: approche méthodologique» Actes du VIe Congrès national des hispanistes français de L'Enseignement supérieur (Annales littéraires de l'Université de Besançon, 126, 1971), pp. 59-71, is interested in the data provided by novels on «l'état social, psychologique, moral, de l'époque; de juger ce témoignage et de reconnaître souvent l'état d'esprit de l'artiste au moment de la création» (p. 60). She reviews in special detail various journals of the time that discussed religious ideas (pp. 62-66). She calls the novel «un document sociologique» (p. 66). Yet it is even more, «C'est l'oeuvre d'un visionnaire don't l'imagination est de nature mythique» (p. 68). In her last paragraph she notes that «En nous permettant de retrouver le point de départ du romancier et de confronter deux images, celle du toman et celle de la presse, la méthode historique ne nous met pas seulement en mesure de juger Galdós historien et mythographe de son temps. Loin de nous enfermer dans un passé clos, elle nous a mis en bon chemin pour juger l'oeuvre littéraire en elle-même, rectifier, parfois, les erreurs de la critique à son sujet et découvrir, avec la structure du roman, de nouveaux aspects du génie du romancier...» (p. 71).


7. Richard A. Cardwell, «Galdós' Doña Perfecta: art or argument?» Anales galdosianos, 7 (1972), 29-47, finds many reasons to disagree with previous interpretations of the novel. He writes: «From what follows, it becomes increasingly obvious that Galdós is far from concerned to present 'una interpretación simbólica de la vida española' as Gullón has observed» (op. cit., p. 62). The novel is no simple confrontation of liberalism with reactionary orthodoxy, of tolerance with intolerance or materialism with spiritualism. Nor does it attempt to portray exclusively fictionalised 'attitudes' as Gullón suggests in his judgement that Rey 'es el representante de la otra España, de la clase de hombre a quien el autor mira con esperanza, porque le considera capaz de traer al país espíritu de comprensión y libertad' (62). It outlines a network of complex human relationships wherein the author is aware that he is only just beginning to apprehend the essentials and that more subtle and intangible factors must for the moment elude his immature grasp. It is these subtle relationships and interactions and not the partisan interests that feed them which provide the substance of tragedy. The 'oculta fuente' is revealed as María Remedios. The twin impulses of material ambition and a sense of inferiority interact, complicate and nourish one another; they set up a chain reaction of behaviour patterns that travel outwards through each character in turn. The conflict is not rooted in ideology alone. As Galdós further develops the narrative intrigues and the personality of Remedios, it is increasingly obvious that the widespread antagonism to Rey is not based on provincial obscurantist mistrust or ideological difference. It stems from the all too, human source of an ambitious mother whose plans have been thwarted. The tale of how Remedios intimidates, emotionally blackmails and finally wears down the resistance of her uncle so that he capitulates to her demands to use force against Rey illustrates the power of an unbridled resolve» (p. 37).

8. Joaquín Casalduero, Vida y obra de Galdós (1843-1920), cuarta edición ampliada (Madrid, Gredos, 1974), pp. 54-63 (Biblioteca romántica hispánica. Estudios y ensayos, 5) is divided into two parts: «La tragedia de España. Doña Perfecta» and «Universalización del tema de Doña Perfecta». The second part deals more with Gloria than with Doña Perfecta. On pp, 56-57 Casalduero writes: «Doña Perfecta se refiere a España, y es una interpretación fiel del estado de espíritu de la sociedad teocrática y anquilosada, que dio lugar a las guerras civiles, y de la sociedad liberal y amante de la ciencia, que también existía, y de la cual Galdós formaba parte. Pero el conflicto en su intensidad dramática y raíces últimas va más allá de los límites histórico-políticos de un país». He makes some interesting comments concerning the most important characters and what they represent.

9. Vernon A. Chamberlin, «Doña Perfecta: Light and Darkness, Good and Evil», in Galdós... (Mary Washington College...), pp. 57-70, is of interest not only because of Chamberlin's discussion of his idea that «the contrasting interplay of light and darkness, as well as the use of animal imagery constitute two of the most forceful and effective techniques which Galdós uses to work on the subconscious» (p. 57), but for his comments on how to teach the novel (p. 67); he states that it «should be taught as a didactic novelistic adaptation of classical tragedy». He feels that the students should   —94→   be told ahead of time that they are dealing with a tragedy, «so that they concentrate on, appreciate, and learn from the consummate technical skills which Galdós employs and, very importantly, also understand the didactic social message with its positive and negative value systems».

10. Vernon A. Chamberlin, «The significance and artistry of the sound effects in Galdós' Doña Perfecta», Homenaje a Sherman H. Eoff (Madrid, Castalia, 1970), pp. 79-85, concludes with these two paragraphs:

Consequently, we may reasonably hypothesize that when Galdós was creating Doña Perfecta as a novelized adaptation of classical tragedy, he knew well that emotive sound effects would properly accompany his narration if it were written in pure dramatic form. However, since he was not writing a drama to be seen and heard (but rather a highly dramatic novel to be read), he, perforce, dispensed with off-scene special effects and musical instrumentation.

Galdós also did not have the benefit of a tonal language or rhythmically emotive poetry. Consequently, he chose to work with selected realistic elements, which not only introduce the reader into the ambiance and mood of the tragic conflict between liberalism and Carlism in nineteenth-century Spain, but which also well symbolize and vivify the struggle: church bells, trumpet blasts, horses hoof, and gunfire. These and other sounds Galdós wove purposefully into his tragic narrative, achieving thereby a heightening and intensification of the dramatic conflicts, suspense, and emotional involvement of his reader.

(pp. 84-85)                

11. Gustavo Correa, «El arquetipo de Orbajosa en Doña Perfecta», La Torre, no, 26 (1959), 121-36, reprinted in El simbolismo religioso..., pp. 35-48, examines «el arquetipo de Orbajosa con su diversidad de perspectivas a la luz de los rasgos que constituyen un ámbito artístico y cultural, y en relación con el dramatismo de la acción» (p. 36). On p. 48, Correa writes: «Su doble dimensión en el espacio y en el tiempo incorpora aspectos peculiares de la geografía y la historia de España a la sustancia novelística. Su cambio de sentido, de signo positivo en negativo, abarca todas las categorías novelísticas y marca la dirección fatalista y catastrófica de la acción. El entrecruzamiento de las dos maneras de visión corresponde a la antinomia Orbajosa-Madrid, y nos muestra la manera como opera un sistema cultural, tradicional y autónomo, frente a otros de características disímiles y absorbentes. El ángulo de la perspectiva externa (Madrid) descubre un plano de visión irónica y trágica sobre el mundo interno de Orbajosa. Pero este último revela su densidad emocional al conferir una dimensión religiosa a su sistema cultural cerrado».

12. John V. Falconieri, «Un capítulo de Galdós que no se le olvidó a Cervantes», Revista de estudios hispánicos, 6 (1972), 145-51, notes the influence of Cervantes on Doña Perfecta and concentrates his remarks on the second chapter of the novel. He finds that «Este capítulometáfora constituía para Galdós una clave con la cual entraba en los dos mundos psíquicos de la novela y con la cual esperaba que entrase también el lector» (p. 150). He writes that «Por eso, Galdós evoca una simpatía por su Orbajosa-España, irremediablemente fundidas en su mente. Lo importante entonces no son las convenciones y las instituciones ni la reforma de éstas, sino cómo penetra la   —95→   civilización dentro de cada uno de nosotros y cómo nos sirve en nuestros pasos por el mundo» (pp. 150-51).

13. Luciano E. García Lorenzo, «Sobre la técnica dramática de Galdós: Doña Perfecta de la novela a la obra teatral», Cuadernos hispanoamericanos, nos. 250-52 (1970-1971), 445-71, writes that «El método que seguiremos en este trabajo será precisamente el de tomar intriga, personajes, tiempo, espacio y lengua en la novela y en el drama de Galdós titulados Doña Perfecta y extraer del análisis comparativo de esos cinco puntos una serie de conclusiones que esperamos puedan ayudar a un mejor conocimiento de la génesis de la obra dramática galdosiana» (pp. 446-47).

14. Stephen Gilman, «Las referencias clásicas de Doña Perfecta. Tema y estructura de la novela», Nueva revista de filología hispánica, 3 (1949). 353-62, desires «volver a Doña Perfecta en un intento de comprender algo en su relación novelística con la totalidad de la obra de Galdós. Espero que de esta manera se haga luz en torno a la contradictoria posición de Doña Perfecta como novela» (p. 353). Gilman «compares the structure of this novel to that of a Greek tragedy» (Cardona, p. 262).

15. Luis and Antolín González del Valle, «El personaje María Remedios en Doña Perfecta de Galdós», Yelmo, n.º 20 (oct.-dic. de 1974), 32-33, emphasizes that María Remedios has a «fuerza catalítica» in Doña Perfecta and «como a través de la ironía lo que ella representa adquiere una dimensión estética y ayuda a la mejor comprensión del personaje» (p. 33).

16. Ricardo Gullón, «Doña Perfecta: invención y mito», Cuadernos hispano americanos, nos. 250-52 (1970-1971), 393-414; Explicación de textos literarios, 1 (1972), 14-28, and Técnicas de Galdós, pp. 23-56, has the following sections: La creación del personaje, Estructura, El personaje en su lenguaje, El antagonista, Mitologías, Función de la imagen. El ritmo y el tono. This is an outstanding stylistic study of the novel.

17. J. B. Hall, «Galdós' use of the Christ-symbol in Doña Perfecta», Anales galdosianos, 8 (1973), 95-98, states that «It is the aim of this brief study to show that in Doña Perfecta we find a central character, Pepe Rey, who presents analogies with Christ considerably more extensive than has generally been supposed» (p. 95).

18. C. A. Jones, «Galdós's second thoughts on Doña Perfecta», Modern Language Review, 54 (1959), 570-73, is a study of the variants in two 1876 editions of this novel. He concludes that «The broad-minded tolerance of Galdós' later work is glimpsed much more in the later version of this novel, which would be interpreted as a plea for moderation on the part of both the conservative and the progressive despite the survival of the cryptic final chapter. Certainly the later version gives evidence of very much better taste, and of a greater artistic sense» (p. 573).

19. Ricardo López Landy, «El espacio novelesco en Galdós: un estudio de Doña Perfecta y Fortunata y Jacinta», Ph. D. dissertation, University of Texas, 1976, viii, 289 leaves deals with these two novels. The first part, pp. 41-100 is entitled «Doña Perfecta -el espacio estrecho de la novela dramática» and is divided into four sections: 1. Estructura y espacio. 2. Ideología y espacio. 3. La creación del espacio perceptible, and 4. El espacio de la novela dramática.


According to the abstract which precedes the dissertation proper «This dissertation consists of two main sections, preceded by a consideration of theoretical aspects of space in the novel, which serves as an introductory framework for the study of two particularly representative works by Benito Pérez Galdós. The novelistic worlds of Doña Perfecta (1870) and Fortunata y Jacinta (1886-1887) are analyzed comparatively in the light of the concept fictional space, taking into account that each novel represents a peak of the main periods of Galdós' novelistic development. The differences in the techniques employed by Galdós in the creation of a novelistic space in both works are seen in the light of their different structures. The confined world of Doña Perfecta as a dramatic novel is seen in contrast with the more fully three-dimensional world of Fortunata y Jacinta, a novel which synthesizes the character, dramatic, and chronicle types of traditional novelistic worlds. The novelist's progression to a more structurally complex method of creating a fictional world is in itself revealing of his artistic development.

Doña Perfecta reveals some characteristics which will later enter into the creation of the autonomous and more fully three-dimensional realistic world of Fortunata y Jacinta. But such components as the interior realm of the characters and their process of growth are not yet part of an organic novelistic space; the dramatic structure precludes the detailed presentation of such interior processes. Space itself can be construed in the first novel as a narrow stage circumscribed by rigid geographical boundaries, and in which time seems to rush inexorably towards the final resolution of the conflict. The symbolic and ideological content of the work also predetermines its structure and prevents the fictional world from achieving the degree of complexity and autonomy of the later work».

20. Jennifer Lowe, «Theme, imagery and dramatic irony in Doña Perfecta», Anales galdosianos, 4 (1969), 40-53, concludes with this paragraph: «The story of Doña Perfecta with all its exaggerations and unlikely situations is a mechanism by which much of the theme is conveyed to us. The conflict between Madrid and the provinces, between enlightened progressive thought and reactionary obscurantism is presented in terms of a struggle between life and death, light and darkness. Pepe is killed, a dark cloud descends. Incidents and comments must often be interpreted figuratively, the significance of the images and their frequent independence need to be analysed, the dramatic irony to be understood. When this has been done, although story and theme are still far from having the artistically satisfying integration which we find in Galdós' later works, the impact which they make on us and our reaction to them are considerably strengthened» (p. 53).

21. Matías Montes Huidobro, «Benito Pérez Galdós: el lenguaje como fuerza destructiva», XIX: Superficie y fondo del estilo [Estudios de Hispanófila, 17, 1971], pp. 23-35, is a stylistic: study of the novel. Montes states that

En el presente trabajo vamos a limitarnos a hacer un breve análisis comparativo del lenguaje de tres personajes de Doña Perfecta y de algunos detalles complementarios utilizados por Galdós en la presentación de sus diálogos. De ahí surgirán tres direcciones diferentes:


1. Una dirección representada por Pepe Rey. El lenguaje que se proyecta en una sola dirección, expresión directa y sin recovecos de los sentimientos y de la razón.

2. Otra dirección representada por Don Inocencio. El lenguaje se proyecta con un doble juego. Este doble juego de don Inocencio, junto a su enloquecida prolijidad, llevarán a Pepe Rey, representante de la forma directa del lenguaje, a perderse dentro del laberinto verbal.

3. Una tercera dirección representada por doña Perfecta. En ella el lenguaje se hace más rico y variado. Tiene multitud de facetas destinadas a aniquilar la primera dirección de la palabra. No representa el lenguaje ni siquiera a una mujer, sino a toda una unidad social y política que requiere esa multitud de direcciones para ejercer su dominio y lograr la destrucción en caso necesario.

(p. 23)                

22. José F. Montesinos, «Doña Perfecta», Galdós (Madrid, Editorial Castalia, 1968), pp. 171-192 writes that «[...] si en la obra total de Galdós hay que tener muy en cuenta Doña Perfecta, Gloria y La familia de León Roch es por las luces que vierten sobre determinadas realidades españolas. Para el estudio de ciertos modos del ser de España son documento imprescindible. Doña Perfecta sobre todo» (p. 176). Montesinos points out that in the Revista de España version that «La improvisación es patente, [...] ella explicaría el precipitado y absurdo final de la primera versión y algunas incoherencias que el autor no pudo o no quiso suprimir de la que hoy leemos» (p. 176). He finds that «Los mayores defectos de la novela y el hastío que produce no se deben a falseamiento alguno deliberado, sino a que el lector ha de pensar por fuerza que en Orbajosa existirían otros seres y cosas, además de los que el autor exhibe, y de este modo lo que daña notablemente al libro es el ser 'parcial' en todos sentidos» (p. 178). It is his opinion that «su tesis es menos mostrar los males del fanatismo que mostrar las causas de este fanatismo. No sólo pierde mucho España con que los orbajosenses sean como bárbaros; quien más pierde es la religión misma» (p. 179). Had it been told in the first person it would perhaps have been more «comprensible» (p. 179). The novel lacks «calor humano» usually found in Galdós' works (p. 184). On p. 184 he states that it is «una de esas novelas defectuosas que tienen tan abundante materia y de tan buena calidad, que permite leer a través de ella, rehacerla en la lectura y representar la historia más clara de lo que está en el libro» (p. 184). On p. 185 he notes that «En Doña Perfecta lo que nos conturba son las omisiones de cosas esenciales». This chapter is an excellent discussion of the characters and style of the novel.

23. Jorge Arturo Ojeda, «El Siglo XIX on Doña Perfecta», Comunidad, 3 (1968), 688-90, attempts too much in too little space. He finds that Galdós «no se inmiscuye en los personajes ni en las ideas. Hay una especie de vida preponderantemente exterior, porque los hechos se imponen en la narración... Pero con su prosa llena de ángel y a diversos tonos, Benito Pérez Galdós dibuja magistralmente, como en trasfondo siniestro y submarino, el carácter de doña Perfecta... Doña Perfecta es una novela que resplandece por su creación de mundo, ajena a las narraciones de aconteceres sin antes ni después, ajena a personas y objetos dichos escuetamente; es ajena también a las intimidades arbitrarias del escritor» (p. 690).


24. William H. Shoemaker, «Cara y cruz de la novelística galdosiana», Hispanic Studies in Honor of Nicholson B. Adams, edited by John Esten Keller and Karl-Ludwig Selig (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1966), pp. 151-66 (reprinted in Shoemaker's Estudios sobre Galdós, páginas 241-57), is a study of Doña Perfecta and Misericordia. Shoemaker states that the two novels have many points in common as well as a few differences. «Me he de limitar en este ensayo a algunos de tema y contenido, otros de actitud e intención o tendencia del autor, y varios de forma en cuanto a estructura y procedimientos -esto último casi nunca tocado por los críticos» (página 152).

25. Vernon A. Chamberlin's «A Soviet Introduction to Doña Perfecta (1964)», Anales galdosianos, 10 (1975), 63 is his introduction to his translation of K. V. Tsurinov, «Benito Pérez Galdós and his novel Doña Perfecta», ibid., 64-81. Chamberlin notes that «In spite of strong temptation», he has «resisted all impulses to correct, interpret, and gloss the facts and ideas of the Russian commentator in order that the readers of Anales galdosianos may have the clearest understanding possible of how Galdós is viewed by an official government commentator and, more importantly, how the Soviet youth of today is introduced to Don Benito».

To a certain extent this introduction by Tsurinov to the 1964 Russian edition of the Spanish text is slightly misnamed for the reader would expect much more concerning Doña Perfecta than is provided. The introduction is strong on Tsurinov's view of 19th century Spanish history. Pp. 72-80 deal with Doña Perfecta. The Russian critic finds that Galdós «remains as a champion for the democratic restructuring of society» (p. 73). He states that «Galdós ruthlessly tears away from the despotic Restoration regime the hypocritical coverings which the bourgeoisie had created» (p. 74). On p. 75 he writes that «By the fact of her existence, Doña Perfecta and her retinue serve as visual evidence of the stagnation of the Spanish social structure». On p. 78 Tsurinov comments on the language of the novel. Tsurinov finds that «By means of the novel Doña Perfecta, Galdós began the extensive portrayal of the Spanish society of his time» (p. 79).

26. Robert J. Weber, «Galdós and Orbajosa», Hispanic Review, 21 (1953), 348-49, reprints a letter from Apuntes of April 5, 1896 «in which Galdós clearly states his opinion about the state of Spain in terms of the fictional Orbajosa» (p. 348). Weber feels that «The theatre was a powerful agent which I believe Galdós intended to utilize at the height of his popularity as a novelist in order to push Spaniards into what he believed was the right course, toward an enlightened, secular yet truly Christian Spain» (p. 349).

27. Claire-Nicole Kerék, «Le personnage de Pepe Rey dans Doña Perfecta de Pérez Galdós», in Hommage à Georges Fourrier (París, Les Belles Lettres, 1973), pp. 209-33 (Annales littéraires de l'Université de Besançon, 142), is the fullest treatment that has yet appeared on the character of Pepe Rey. The author carefully analyzes the text to see what it shows concerning Pepe Rey and reaches the conclusion that he is «donc un homme profondément simple, il représente comme un juste équilibre des différentes qualités désirables chez un homme du XIXe siècle, sans qu'aucune, sauf son amour pour la science, l'emporte sur les autres. Mais nous verrons aussi que, pour le propos de   —99→   Galdós, il importait peu de la caractériser davantage: l'essentiel était qu'il possédât des traits qui pouvaient opposer Madrid à la province» (pp. 216-17). Her view is contrary to that of many critics who see Pepe Rey as Galdós' mouthpiece. She writes: «Il est bien évident que Pepe Rey n'est pas un porte-parole, mais un pion qu'il déplace pour prouver une idée» (p. 225). This article contains much of interest concerning Doña Perfecta, its ideology and its place in Galdós' overall work.

28. David Hannay, «Doña Perfecta: A Spanish Novel», Temple Bar, 58 (March 1880), 326-42, is still, despite its age, one of the longest accounts of this novel in English; it consists almost entirely of a summary of the plot and a discussion of the characters.

29. William Dean Howells was one of those responsible for introducing this novel to the reading public of the United States. His review first appeared

in Harper's Bazaar, 28 (Nov. 22, 1895), 886; it was then published as an introduction to Doña Perfecta, translated by Mary J. Serrano (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1896), v-xiii, and can now be easily found in his Preface to Contemporaries (1882-1920), facsimile reproductions with an introduction and bibliographical note by George Arms, William M. Gibson, Frederic C. Marston, Jr. (Gainesville, Florida, Scholar's Facsimiles and Reprints, 1957), pp. 53-61.

30 Doña Perfecta, translated by Robert Marrast, introduction by María Pérez Galdós (París: Les Editeurs français réunis, [1965]), reproduces the prologue in a French translation that Max Aub first published in his Mexican edition to the novel, pp. 13-16. It is a pity that this critic's study is not longer. Aub's «Prólogo para una edición popular de Doña Perfecta» has also been published in his Pruebas (Madrid: Editorial Ciencia Nueva, 1967), pp. 163-85.

31. Pauline Marshall reviewed Harriet de Onis' translation and introduction to her translation of this novel (Great Neck, N. Y.: Barron's Educational Series, 1960, 235 pp.) in Hispania, 43 (1960), 634. The introduction, she states, is «of value particularly to those unfamiliar with the work of Pérez Galdós».

32. Jaroslav Rosendofsky, «Algunas observaciones sobre Doña Perfecta de B. Pérez Galdós y La casa de Bernarda Alba de F. García Lorca», Etudes romanes de Brno, 2, 114 (1966), 181-210, discusses in pp. 182-200 «la contextura ideológica y social de doña Perfecta en atención especial a algunas figuras más salientes, cuya fisonomía puede interesarnos por cuanto tengan alguna relación con el ambiente y los personajes respectivos de La casa de Bernarda Alba» (p. 200). Pages 200-09 discuss the Lorca play, while the last two pages develop the comparison that the author wishes to make between the novel and the play. He writes that «Es en primer lugar el ambiente de un pronunciado color local que enlaza Doña Perfecta con La casa de Bernarda Alba... También las dos protagonistas principales resultan condicionadas por este ambiente en su modalidad geográfica (clima áspero, población escasa), histórica (behetría rural, tendencias centralistas) y económica (falta de industrias, una mayoría aplastante de elemento campesino» (pp. 209-210). He feels that «Nos muestran estas dos figuras una vez más la necesidad de radicales reformas en la estructura básica de España -reformas   —100→   cuya necesidad se hace cada vez más urgente e inevitable-» (p. 210).

33. Emma Susana Speratti Piñero, «Paralelo entre Doña Perfecta y La casa de Bernarda Alba», Revista de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, 4 (1959), 369-78, declares that «quizá parezca disparatado establecer un paralelo entre Doña Perfecta y La casa de Bernarda Alba» (p. 369). She then states: «Pero con todo, tipos y situaciones como los que aparecen en Doña Perfecta y en La casa de Bernarda Alba, no son tan infrecuentes como para que Lorca no pudiera crear su personaje y su obra sin tener en cuenta los de Galdós. Hay coincidencia, sin embargo» (p. 371) and these «coincidencias» are discussed for the rest of the article.

Its influence on foreign literatures. Few 19th-century Spanish novels have had greater influence on authors in other countries.

34. Two articles discuss Doña Bárbara and Doña Perfecta. They are: David T. Sisto, «Doña Perfecta and Doña Bárbara», Hispania, 37 (1954), 167-70, and Leo Ulrich, «Doña Perfecta y Doña Bárbara. Un caso de ramificación literaria», Revista iberoamericana, 16 (1950), 13-29. Sisto finds «an interesting psychological parallel» (p. 167) between the two novels and some of their major and minor characters. Ulrich writes «de la semejanza incontestable de ciertos motivos, existentes entre ambos libros; pero dichos motivos se desarrollan en sentido opuesto, resultando el libro de Gallegos algo como una 'palinodia' del de Pérez Galdós. Tratamos, no de encontrar dependencia positiva, sino de estudiar la morfología inmanente de un motivo literario, y sus razones» (p. 14).

35. Sisto is also the author of «Pérez Galdós' Doña Perfecta and Louis Bromfield's A Good Woman», Symposium, 11 (1957), 273-80, in which he points to parallels between the two novels. He concludes that «Implications of direct influence remain moot... The basic similarities between the two women and between other personages of the two stories, as well as between the two provincial backgrounds are nevertheless of interest to observers of creative perception and the literary process» (p. 279).

36. Donald F. Brown, «An Argentine Doña Perfecta: Galdós and Manuel Gálvez», Hispania, 47 (1964), 282-87, finds that Graciana in Gálvez' Perdido en su noche should be considered as among the «literary progeny» of Doña Perfecta.

37. Francis S. Heck, «Dos mujeres sin alma (La pharisienne y Doña Perfecta)», Duquesne Hispanic Review, 4 (1965), 79-89, arrives at no definite answer to the question «¿es posible que Doña Perfecta ejerciese influencia sobre La Pharisienne? ¿Conocía François Mauriac la obra de Galdós?» (p. 89). Heck states that «La literatura española del siglo diez y nueve y la literatura francesa del siglo veinte nos ofrecen dos mujeres que poseen una misma personalidad. Doña Perfecta y Brigitte Pian hacen uso de la religión y de su posición social para marchar como conquistadores, hollando a su paso a cuantos se interponen en su camino. A los ojos de las dos mujeres la busca de la felicidad es un crimen contra Dios, el Dios cuya ley ellas interpretan es Orbajosa y Larjuzon. Sus vidas son estériles y austeras, en las que falta el amor» (pp. 88-89).

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